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It seems almost all inquiries made using the Urim and Thummim were made for either kings or leaders of the community

Numbers 27:18,21 NASB

So the Lord said to Moses, “[g]Take Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and lay your hand on him; Moreover, he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the Lord. At his [i]command they shall go out, and at his [j]command they shall come in, both he and all the sons of Israel with him, all the congregation.”

1 Samuel 14:41 NASB

Therefore, Saul said to the Lord, the God of Israel, “Give a [m]perfect lot.” And Jonathan and Saul were selected by lot, but the people [n]were exonerated.

1 Samuel 28:6 NASB

So Saul inquired of the Lord, but the Lord did not answer him, either in dreams, or by the Urim, or by the prophets.

Was any inquiry ever made using the Urim and Thummim for the ordinary Israelite?

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First, it is doubtful whether 1 Sam 14:41 is a reference to the Urim and Thummim, which are not mentioned, because an identical procedure of "lots" is used in Acts 1:26 without the use of Urim and Thummim.

Second, the Urim is mentioned in the OT seven times and the Thummim five times. They are clearly connected with decision making, viz:

  • Ex 28:30 - And in the breastpiece of judgment you shall put the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be on Aaron’s heart, when he goes in before the LORD. Thus Aaron shall bear the judgment of the people of Israel on his heart before the LORD regularly.
  • Num 27:21 - And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD. At his word they shall go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he and all the people of Israel with him, the whole congregation.”
  • 1 Sam 28:6 - He inquired of the LORD, but the LORD did not answer him by dreams or Urim or prophets.
  • Ezra 2:63 - The governor ordered them not to eat the most holy things until there was a priest to consult the Urim and Thummim.
  • Neh 7:65 - The governor ordered them not to eat the most holy things until there was a priest to consult the Urim and Thummim.

There is also a reference to the ephod that held the Urim and Thummim in place for decision making:

  • 1 Sam 23:9 - When David learned that Saul was plotting evil against him, he said to Abiathar the priest, “Bring the ephod.” [The subsequent text makes clear that David used the Urim and Thummim for a decision despite their names not appearing in the text.]

Indeed, this is the only time recorded where the ephod containing the Urim and Thummim were used to make a decision. Saul's attempts in 1 Sam 28:6 failed.

Therefore, just how often the Urim and Thummim were used to make decisions, and for whom, and what type of decisions, we do not know; however, Num 27:21 suggests that the Urim and Thummim were (or should have been) used before battles.

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