In many verses in John 6, Jesus says "I will raise them up at the last day". Does that mean to literally "revived" the ones who ate his body and drank his blood? Or what does it mean? Thanks!
The four instances of this clause in John 6 are:
6:39 (NET) — "Now this is the will of the one who sent me—that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up at the last day."
6:40 (NET) — "For this is the will of my Father—for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day."
6:44 (NET) — "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day."
6:54 (NET) — "The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day."
The plain sense meaning of ἀνίστημι ('raise up') is "to cause to stand or be erect, raise, erect, raise up," generally in reference to images of deities or persons who are lying down (especially someone who was sick).1 However, it can also mean "to raise up by bringing back to life" and "to come back to life from the dead, rise up, come back from the dead."2
To shed further light on how John may be using the term in this context, we should examine other uses of the verb in his Gospel (we could also look in his other writings, but John only uses the verb in his Gospel). This leads us to four additional uses of the verb:
11:23 (ESV) — "Jesus said to her, 'Your brother will rise again.'"
11:24 (ESV) — "Martha said to him, 'I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.'"
11:31 (NET) — "Then the people who were with Mary in the house consoling her saw her get up quickly and go out. They followed her, because they thought she was going to the tomb to weep there."
20:9 (NET) — "(For they did not yet understand the scripture that Jesus must rise from the dead.)"
75% of these additional uses of ἀνίστημι are clearly in the context of raising from the dead, going so far as to specify that Lazarus would 'rise again in the resurrection on the last day' in 11:24 (ἀναστήσεται ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ), which is virtually identical language to that used in the four instances of ἀνίστημι in chapter 6.
Given these additional uses of ἀνίστημι by the author, the context of eternal life (ζωὴν αἰώνιον) in John 63, and the numerous teachings about the resurrection by Jesus4 (which was an existing teaching that was popular among the Pharisees in second-temple Judaism), it is most likely that the meaning intended is that of rising in the resurrection on the last day (ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ).
1 William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 83.
2 Ibid., 83.
SHORT ANSWER: When Jesus says "I will raise them up at the last day", Jesus is speaking figuratively. He will raise those who believe in Him up on the cross with him to live victorious in this life, on the day he dies on the cross--"the last day"."
LONG ANSWER: Please Reference: John 3:14 (below for context) Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, (Jesus will literally be raised up on a cross.) and then John 3:18, *"Whoever believes in him is not condemned (The believers are figuratively raised up--not condemned), but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son. (The condemned will try to go through life themselves without Christ.) Then, John 5:24 “Very truly I tell you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life. (Jesus will provide an ever flowing eternal life of nourishment in spiritual food and spiritual water so you can handle whatever life throws your way.)
Jesus references the "dead" as those who are dead in sin who don't believe in Him, are stuck living life apart from Jesus letting the daily struggles of life rip them up, and those who "live" as those who can put their life and trust in him. The only thing that separates the living and the dead is belief in Jesus.
If you "eat Jesus", you believe in him.
Numbers 21:9 So Moses made a bronze snake and put it up on a pole. Then when anyone was bitten by a snake and looked at the bronze snake, they lived.
John 3:14-18 Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the wilderness, so the Son of Man must be lifted up, that everyone who believes may have eternal life in him. For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son.
John 5:24-29 “Very truly I tell you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be judged but has crossed over from death to life. Very truly I tell you, a time is coming and has now come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man. Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out—those who have done what is good will rise to live, and those who have done what is evil will rise to be condemned."
Now John 6 starts to make sense.
John 6:39-40 "Now this is the will of the one who sent me—that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up at the last day. For this is the will of my Father—for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day."
John 6:44 "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day."
John 6:54 "The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day."
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I will raise you up at the last day
John 6:39-40 (NASB)
39 "This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. 40 For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day.”
John 11:24 (NASB)
24 Martha *said to Him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.”
Daniel 12:13 (NASB)
13 But as for you, go your way to the [a]end; then you will enter into rest and rise again for your allotted portion at the end of the age.”
The Last Day.
The Bible refers to a "last day" as a period of time that the resurrection of the dead will take place.
The Sadducees, a religious sect at the time of Jesus did not believe in the resurrection, although it is a clear teaching of the scriptures (Daniel 12:13 )
Mark 12:18 (NASB)
18 "Some Sadducees (who say that there is no resurrection) *came to Jesus, and began questioning Him, saying."
I will raise you up at the last day.
Martha, the sister of Lazarus believed in the resurrection hope that Jesus taught and that her brother would be resurrected on the last day. The resurrection of her brother further reinforced her faith and that of others.
The Greek word "anastasis" translated "resurrection" literally means "standing up again" thus this involves raising the dead person from the grave to a life pattern of the individual. (John 5:28-29)
Jesus is specifically talking about what is to happen in the discourse on the bread of life and the true meaning of his words have been spelled out for over 1500 years.
The Fathers of the early church stated clearly, and Paul said it also, that it was not just the same Passover as before; that one could not eat his flesh and blood - the innocent lamb - unless they first confess and hold no grudges or animosity against their brothers, sisters, wife, husband, which would bring condemnation on themselves. Jesus said, if you eat it, then I am in you.
One last thing, when Jesus said that the flesh has no value he meant our desire for things of the flesh: money, lust, drunkenness, gluttony etc. The word symbol is not in the Bible and this interpretation was created by none other than John Calvin in the 1400s