Great question! We should first observe that the word for "covenant" בְּרִית (berith) is never used in connection with Adam. Its first appearance in the Biblical text is Gen 6:18 in connection with the Noahide covenant.
However, a number of scholars have observed "covenant language" in Gen 1 & 2. Generally, covenants, in their complete form, had a structure shown in the appendix. Most of this can be seen in the promises and instructions given to Adam and Eve, and thus is often termed the "Edenic Covenant" specifically:
Bible References: Gen 1:26, 28-30, 2:16, 17.
This covenant is not as explicit as those which follow because the word “covenant” is not used. However, following the general principle that laws are never given without a being in the context of a covenant, there appears to be a clear implication of one. This covenant consists of:
- God blessed mankind, Gen 1:28
- God gives the gift of all seed-bearing plants as food, including fruit trees and green plants, Gen 1:28, 2:16
- Command to “be fruitful”, Gen 1:28
- Command to “multiply”, Gen 1:28
- Command to “fill the earth”, Gen 1:28
- Command to “subdue the earth”, Gen 1:28
- Command to “rule/have dominion over all the creatures”, Gen 1:26, 28
- Command to not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil else they would die, Gen 2:17. [This was, unfortunately, disobeyed and then fulfilled in Gen 3.]
Thus, many have argued that there was a prevailing divine covenant applying to Adam and Eve as broadly listed above.
APPENDIX - Covenant Structure
All divine covenants in the Bible contain the following six elements:
- Statement of pre-amble and/or purpose of the covenant
- Promise of benefits given by God. This shows that such divine covenants are the initiative of God alone. In no case were such covenants initiated by humans.
- Promise of curses/consequences if the covenant is not kept
- Requirements of people on whom the benefits are bestowed. This is sometimes also call the associated “law” of the covenant.
- A sign of the covenant to remind the people of their responsibilities
- A ceremony, usually consisting of a “cutting”, always a sacrifice or similar.