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I notice a couple of things:

  1. In Matthew, Peter says Jesus is the Son of God; but in John 1, Andrew was the first to reveal this early in their encounter with Jesus. That is, while in Matthew, Peter says something similar, it is later in His ministry at Philippi.

  2. Much is made about Jesus' calling Peter the rock in Matthew's account however he also called him Cephas in John's account of what seemed to be early in their call to follow him.

Matt 16:16 - Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

John 1:34 - I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God.

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  • 3
    Much information can be lost when using indirect quotations. Please provide explicit direct quotations of the relevant verses. Jun 29 at 4:03
  • I am confused by 'Matthew Peter'.
    – Nigel J
    Jun 29 at 7:18
  • @NigelJ - I have attempted to fix that problem by fixing the orthography and grammar.
    – Dottard
    Jun 29 at 22:09
  • This question contains two separate question that should be asked separately.
    – Dottard
    Jun 29 at 22:09

2 Answers 2

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Here I will address only the first of the OP's questions. The second should be the subject of another question.

There is nothing unique or novel about the title "Son of God" for Jesus - it was revealed to Mary before His birth. Below are listed numerous other occasions that people used this title for Jesus, many of which were before Peter's declaration in Matt 16:16.

  • Matt 8:29 - “What do You want with us, Son of God?” they shouted. “Have You come here to torture us before the appointed time?”
  • Matt 14:33 - Then those who were in the boat worshiped Him, saying, “Truly You are the Son of God!”
  • Matt 16:16 - Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
  • Matt 26:63, 64 - Then the high priest said to Him, “I charge You under oath by the living God: Tell us if You are the Christ, the Son of God.” “You have said it yourself,” Jesus answered.
  • Matt 27:43 - He trusts in God. Let God deliver Him now if He wants Him. For He said, ‘I am the Son of God.’”
  • Matt 27:54 - When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified and said, “Truly this was the Son of God.” See also Mark 15:39.
  • Mark 3:11 - And when the unclean spirits saw Him, they fell down before Him and cried out, “You are the Son of God!”
  • Mark 5:7 - And he shouted in a loud voice, “What do You want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You before God not to torture me!”
  • Luke 1:35 - The angel replied, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the Holy One to be born will be called the Son of God.
  • Luke 4:41 - Demons also came out of many people, shouting, “You are the Son of God!” But He rebuked the demons and would not allow them to speak, because they knew He was the Christ.
  • Luke 8:28 - When the man saw Jesus, he cried out and fell down before Him, shouting in a loud voice, “What do You want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You not to torture me!”
  • Luke 22:70, 71 - So they all asked, “Are You then the Son of God?” He replied, “You say that I am.” “Why do we need any more testimony?” they declared. “We have heard it for ourselves from His own lips.”
  • John 1:34 - I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God.
  • John 1:49 - “Rabbi,” Nathanael answered, “You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!”
  • John 3:18 - Whoever believes in Him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe has already been condemned, because he has not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son.
  • John 10:36 - then what about the One whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world? How then can you accuse Me of blasphemy for stating that I am the Son of God?
  • John 11:4 - When Jesus heard this, He said, “This sickness will not end in death. No, it is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
  • John 11:27 - “Yes, Lord,” she answered, “I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.”
  • John 19:7 - “We have a law,” answered the Jews, “and according to that law He must die, because He declared Himself to be the Son of God.”

That is, Jesus was often addressed as "Son of God"before His resurrection from the dead, with many of these occasions before Peter's declaration in Matt 16:16.

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To clarify at the outset regarding the way the gospel accounts all speak of Jesus being the Son of God:-

The elderly apostle John, who wrote his gospel account last, was relating what John the Baptist said about Jesus, at his baptism: "And I saw and bare record that this is the Son of God" (John 1:34). This was stated before Jesus called Andrew and the others to be his apostles. In John chapter 1 the second person to call Jesus the Son of God is Nathaniel (not Andrew). Verse 49 shows this clearly.

The gospel account that puts particular stress on Jesus being the Son of God is that of Mark. His opening verse sets forth this fundamental truth: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."

In Luke's gospel account he records the angel telling the virgin Mary the astounding news that the miracle baby she will give birth to "shall be called the Son of the Highest" (Luke 1:32). Well, the Highest is God, so (clearly) Jesus will be called the Son of God. That seems to be the first statement declaring Jesus to be the Son of God. John the Baptist's declaration seems to the the second time, with Nathaniel's the third, and Peter's some time later.

Matthew's gospel records Simon Peter (Cephas) declaring Jesus to be the Christ, the Son of the living God, and Jesus saying that he was given that revelation by God the Father (Matthew 16:16-17). In no way does that conflict with John 1:34 because the statements are not being written in chronological order. This answers your first query.

Your second query is about Peter being called Cephas in both Matthew and John's accounts. However, it is unclear what you are asking about that. If you are querying the timing of when Jesus gave Peter that name, then all that needs to be said is that that has no bearing whatever on your first question, and that the gospels are not biographies, so chronological order of events, and when something was said to another person, may be in a different sequence in different gospel accounts.

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