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I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men,” ‭‭2 Samuel‬ ‭7:14‬ ‭

Or

I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. I will not take my steadfast love from him, as I took it from him who was before you,” ‭‭1 Chronicles‬ ‭17:13‬ ‭

Paul in the book of Hebrews (I stand with the early church fathers that Paul is the author) writes the following, presumably quoting the above two verses

“For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? Or again, “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?” ‭‭Hebrews‬ ‭1:5‬ ‭

Much is implied here by Paul, but how is Paul making the connection that these, one or both OT passages are speaking about the Son?

And what tense is used, because for the ages to have been made by the Son, the Son had to have predated them as per Heb1:2.

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    The two passages in the Old Testament are talking about David's son Solomon. His kingdom last for the eon. Also God treats him as His son and disciplines him when he does wrong. Eons were made through Christ and His kingdom last for eon of the eons.
    – Sherrie
    Apr 8 at 17:48
  • @ Sherrie - The passages talk about the messiah, not Solomon. "He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever." Jesus established His kingdom for ever. Solomon was the reason that the kingdom of Israel was split in two. God never asked David or Solomon for a temple. Jesus body is God's temple. Apr 8 at 20:03
  • @ Nihil Sine Deo - Paul quoted 2 Samuel 7 in 2 Corinthians 6:18: "For ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." Apr 8 at 20:07
  • @ארקדיוס you’ve just complicated the matter. Not that I don’t welcome it, but it’s a nuance that deserves its own question Apr 9 at 1:36
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    @ Nihil Sine Deo - Sorry for being vague. I meant that Paul reused the quote in 2 Corinthians and the one in Hebrews was from a more eloquent Greek speaker. Two different people. Which would be a proof that this way of interpretation of the text from 2 Samuel 7 was common among the apostles. Someone applied this to Jesus and Paul through Jesus applied the same statement to the believers. Apr 9 at 11:10

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2 Sam 7 is the formal establishment the Davidic (or Regal, or Royal) Covenant: 2 Sam 7, 23:5, 1 Kings 6:11, 12, 8:25, 1 Chron 17:11-14, 2 Chron 6:14-16, 7:17, 18, 13:5, Ps 89:4, 29, 34, 39, 132:11, 12, Jer 33:21, Eze 37:15-28. This is an eternal covenant.

The provisions of the Davidic Covenant were as follows.

  • God promised to make David, a shepherd king over Israel. 2 Sam 7:9, 1 Kings 8:25, 2 Chron 21:7.
  • God promised to defeat all David’s enemies and give him peace on all sides, 2 Sam 7:9
  • David’s name would be great, 2 Sam 7:9-11
  • God promised there would always be a blood descendant of David on his throne, by an eternal “covenant of salt” (ie very solemn), 2 Chron 13:5, forever, 2 Sam 7:13, 15, 16, Eze 37:26, (2 Sam 23:5).
  • God promised that the descendant of David would have God as his Father and he would be His son, 2 Sam 7:14.
  • David’s son, Solomon, was the person to build the temple, 2 Sam 7:12, 13.
  • David and his descendants must remain faithful to God and keep all that is written in the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy), Deut 17:18, 31:26.

Note that the Davidic Covenant was distinct from the Israelite and Levitical Covenants – David became a type of the eternal reign of Messiah to come. While David and his successors were earthly kings, they were to recognise that the real king of Israel was God. 1 Sam 8:7, 8, 24:6, 2 Sam 19:21, 1 Chron 28:5, 29:23, 2 Chron 9:8, 13:8, Ps 5:2, 44:4. See also 1 Sam 12:14.

It is a simple matter of history that David’s descendants were not always faithful and the earthly Davidic dynasty ended in 586 BC with the final capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. However, the New Testament calls Jesus Christ, Messiah, “the Son of David” as a direct fulfilment of the (ultimately) eternal throne of David which Jesus inherited. Matt 1:1, 20, 9:27, 12:23, 15:22, 20:30, 15, 21:9, 15, Mark 10:35, Luke 1:32, 33, 18:38, 39, John 1:49, Acts 13:32-37, Heb 1:8. See also Rev 11:15, 19:16. Such a Messiah was prophesied long ago: Ex 15:18, Ps 10:16, 61:7, 68:16, 92:8, 93:5, 146:10, Isa 9:7, 47:7, Lam 5:19, Micah 4:7, etc. Compare Isa 55:3 with Acts 13:34 and John 1:49.

Note especially, what the angel said to Mary before Jesus’ birth in Luke 1:32, 33 –

He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever. His kingdom will never end!”

CONCLUSION

2 Sam 7 said that David's son Solomon was to be the king of Israel as the earthly representative of the true heavenly kingdom that would ultimately be fulfilled by Messiah, David's (more distant) son and that this would be an eternal throne. Thus, both Solomon and Jesus fulfill this prophecy in 2 Sam 7.

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Double meaning

Hebrew writing frequently makes a "dual prophecy" - that is, the prophet states something that will have a temporal fulfilment and a spiritual fulfilment, or an application in his day and an application at one (or both) comings of the Messiah:

E.g.

Isaiah spoke in such a manner that his words find application and fulfillment in many different ages or events in world history. (see Ludlow Isaiah - Prophet, Seer, and Poet p. 54)

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Solomon or Jesus

The passage in 1 Chron. 17 more clearly illustrates the dual nature of the prophecy being spoken. Let's back up a few verses. God says to David:

11 And it shall come to pass, when thy days be expired that thou must go to be with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons; and I will establish his kingdom.

12 He shall build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever.

13 I will be his father, and he shall be my son...

The seed of David is clearly applicable to Solomon, who built the temple, but it is also applicable to Jesus, a descendant of David who said destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.

The kingdom of God was indeed established/ordered by Jesus, and Solomon's throne was only "established forever" in the sense that the blessings of the gospel came through Israel to the whole world because of Jesus. In the physical sense, the kingdom of Solomon has long since fallen.

Hebrews rightly recognizes that this is a dual prophecy which had short-term fulfilment in Solomon, but found its ultimate fulfilment in Jesus.

God the Father is the Father of the spirits of the human family (e.g. Hebrews 12:9), but He is also the Father of Jesus in a unique sense: Jesus is His Only Begotten Son in the flesh.

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Actually Hebrews 1:5 is a "rhetorical" question. This means the answer is implied to make a point. In this case, the context demands the answer, "none."

The point of quoting Psalm 2:7 is to contrast between the Son and the angels. Although the angels as a group are called the "sons" of God: in the Old Testament (Genesis 6:2, Job 1:6, and others, no angel ever is called "Son."

The Father, however, calls Jesus "Son" at His baptism and at the Transfiguration. God promised David a son who would establish David's house, throne, and kingdom forever (Samuel 7:13,14). And David knew about and looked for a greater Son than Solomon (Psalm 89).

The writer of Hebrews continues at vs 6 outlining the superiority of Jesus Christ. The angels are to worship Him. His Father designates the Son as "God." (Psalm 45). At vs 10-11, He existed before the universe because He created it. It is not everlasting; He is. Like a fragile garment susceptible to decay and will crumble, yet He shall remain forever and ever since He is Jehovah God.

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  • If that be true and He was not named Son before then, how were the heavens or how were the ages created by the Son? They wouldn’t have been Apr 11 at 15:49
  • @NihilSineDeo Could you please be more specific with your question? What do you mean by "If that be true and He was not named Son before then?" If what is true?
    – Mr. Bond
    Apr 11 at 19:50
  • If He were only named Son after His incarnation Apr 11 at 19:57
  • @NihilSineDeo No, Jesus Christ was eternally the Son of God before His incarnation. Proverbs 30:4. Isaiah 9:6, Micah 5:2. In the New Testament you have John 1:1-3, John 8:58-59, Colossians 1:16-17, Hebrews 1:2, Hebrews 1:5, and here's an oldie but a goody, John 17:5, "And now glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was." Plus you have Jesus Christ in the OT preexisting as "the angel of the Lord." The Father has no separate manifestation from the Son. The Son is the only manifestation and revelation of the Father.
    – Mr. Bond
    Apr 11 at 20:24
  • I am not contesting the divinity, I’m contesting the time that He received the title of Son. You cannot make the claim that He was Son prior to Creation, if you could, show me just one verse. Nor did He become Son after incarnation. The verses above don’t show Him as Son prior to Creation, nor receiving Sonship only after incarnation. And that was my point. Apr 11 at 22:55

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