Matthew 10:34 New International Version (NIV)
34 “Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.
How do we understand Jesus use of the word Sword in this verse?
In Matt. 10:34, it is written,
34 Do not think that I came to send peace on the earth. I did not come to send peace, but rather, a sword!
ΛΔʹ μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν οὐκ ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἀλλὰ μάχαιραν TR, 1550
The “sword” (μάχαιρα) represents “division” (διαμερισμός), and this is evident when we examine the synoptic parallel in Luke 12:51, in which it is written,
51 Do you suppose that I came to give peace on earth? No, I tell you! But rather, division!
ΝΑʹ δοκεῖτε ὅτι εἰρήνην παρεγενόμην δοῦναι ἐν τῇ γῇ οὐχί λέγω ὑμῖν ἀλλ᾽ ἢ διαμερισμόν TR, 1550
What does this division involve? If we read the next verses following either verse, the Lord Jesus Christ explains that it involves division of families.
In Matt. 10:35-36, it is written,
35 For I came to sever a man from his father, and the daughter from her mother, and the daughter-in-law from her mother-in-law. 36 And a man’s enemies shall be of his house.
ΛΕʹ ἦλθον γὰρ διχάσαι ἄνθρωπον κατὰ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ θυγατέρα κατὰ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτῆς καὶ νύμφην κατὰ τῆς πενθερᾶς αὐτῆς ΛϚʹ καὶ ἐχθροὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οἱ οἰκιακοὶ αὐτοῦ TR, 1550
In Luke 12:52-53, it is written,
52 For from now on, there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. 53 The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.
ΝΒʹ ἔσονται γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν πέντε ἐν οἴκῳ ἑνὶ διαμεμερισμένοι τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶν καὶ δύο ἐπὶ τρισίν ΝΓʹ διαμερισθήσεται πατὴρ ἐφ᾽ υἱῷ καὶ υἱὸς ἐπὶ πατρί μήτηρ ἐπὶ θυγατρί καὶ θυγάτηρ ἐπὶ μητρί πενθερὰ ἐπὶ τὴν νύμφην αὐτῆς καὶ νύμφη ἐπὶ τὴν πενθεράν αὐτῆς TR, 1550
This may not be well understood in America, in which the religious majority is Christianity (however, it does happen on occasion). However, in the Middle East, particularly Judea, which is the setting of the Gospel, the religious majority was Judaism. Not too long after Christianity was born, the Pharisees and the Sanhedrin became hostile to any Jews who converted to Christianity. Those Jews who confessed Christ were excommunicated from the people of Israel and placed under cherem. Even their own family members disowned them.1
There is a bit of a contradiction, has Jesus come to bring peace or violence. There are some examples of Peace but more passages that relate to violence.
It is likely that phrases such as “Love your enemies” etc… are related more to general local social-economic relations, largely within the village / community.
Matthew 5:38–39 “You have heard the law that says the punishment must match the injury: ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say, do not resist an evil person! If someone slaps you on the right cheek, offer the other cheek also.
Matthew 5:43-48 “You have heard the law that says, ‘Love your neighbor’ and hate your enemy. But I say, love your enemies! Pray for those who persecute you! In that way, you will be acting as true children of your Father in heaven. For he gives his sunlight to both the evil and the good, and he sends rain on the just and the unjust alike. If you love only those who love you, what reward is there for that? Even corrupt tax collectors do that much. If you are kind only to your friends, how are you different from anyone else? Even pagans do that. But you are to be perfect, even as your Father in heaven is perfect.
“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God” (Matthew 5:9)
Matt. 26:52-53: “Put your sword back in its place…for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. Do you think I cannot call on My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels?”
Jesus says he has not come to change but continue
“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. Therefore anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands and teaches others accordingly will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practic-es and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven." [Matthew 5:17-20]
Sword / Violence many more passages in the old testament relating to violence.
Exodus 21:22-25 - 22 “When men strive together and hit a pregnant woman, so that her children come out, but there is no harm, the one who hit her shall surely be fined, as the woman's husband shall impose on him, and he shall pay as the judges determine. 23 But if there is harm, then you shall pay life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.
Judges 21: 10-11 : 10 So the assembly sent twelve thousand fighting men with instructions to go to Jabesh Gilead and put to the sword those living there, including the women and children. 11 “This is what you are to do,” they said. “Kill every male and every woman who is not a virgin.”
Matthew 7:21-23: “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter. 22Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’ 23And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.’"
Matt 10:34 34 Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. 35 For I have come to turn a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law – 36 a man’s enemies will be the members of his own household.” (Matthew 10: 34-36)
Mark 9:49 - Everyone will be salted with fire.
John 2:15 So He made a whip out of cords and drove all from the temple courts, both sheep and cattle. He poured out the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables.
“Let the dead bury their own dead.” (Matthew 8:22)
“If you don’t have a sword, sell your cloak and buy one (a sword).” (Luke 22:36)
If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple. (Luke 14:26)
"I am the vine; you are the branches. If a man remains in me and I in him, he will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing. If anyone does not remain in me, he is like a branch that is thrown away and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and burned (John 15:1-6)
“But those enemies of mine who did not want me to be king over them, bring them here and kill them in front of me.” (Luke 19:27)
“If anyone comes to me and does not hate his father and mother, his wife and children, his brothers and sisters—yes, even his own life—he cannot be my disciple.” (Luke 14:26)
“the Son of man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn” (Matthew 24:30)
1 Corinthians 15:24 [Jesus] will turn the Kingdom over to God the Father, having destroyed every ruler and authority and power. 15:25 For Christ must reign until he humbles all his enemies beneath his feet.
Isaiah 35:4 Say to those with fearful hearts, “Be strong, do not fear; your God will come, he will come with vengeance; with divine retribution he will come to save you.”
Micah 15:5 I will execute vengeance in anger and fury on the heathen, such as they have not heard.
Psalm 137:8-9 8 O Babylon, you will be destroyed. Happy is the one who pays you back for what you have done to us. 9 Blessed is the one who grabs your babies and smashes them against a rock.
Luke 12:49 - “I have come to bring fire on the earth, and how I wish it were already kindled!
Luke 12:51 Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division.
Revelations 2:23 And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
Revelation 19:11-21 describes the ultimate war with Christ, the conquering commander who judges and makes war “with justice” (v. 11). It’s going to be bloody (v. 13) and gory. The birds will eat the flesh of all those who oppose Him (v. 17-18). He has no compassion upon His enemies, whom He will conquer completely and consign to a “fiery lake of burning sulfur” (v. 20).
“every tribe on earth will mourn because of him” (Rev. 1:7)
Rev 12:5 5 She gave birth to a male child, one who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron, but her child was caught up to God and to his throne,
“judge and wage war” (Rev. 19:11)
his robe will be “dipped in blood” (19:13)
Matt 25:41 Then he will say to those at his left hand, ‘You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels;
Mark 12:40 those who devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation."
Jesus peace image appears to be more of a fallacy - he has come to guide and warn - not to die for our sins - see: https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/62982/33268
Sword means the rhema word of God. Paul uses the same word for the sword when describing the full armor of God:
“Do not think that I have come to bring (βαλεῖν) peace to the earth. I have not come to bring (βαλεῖν) peace, but a sword (μάχαιραν)… (ESV)
and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword (μάχαιραν) of the Spirit, which is the word (ῥῆμα) of God (Ephesians 6:17 ESV)
The sword is the ῥῆμα (rhema) word of God; of this use in Ephesian’s Vine’s states:
The significance of rhema (as distinct from logos) is exemplified in the injunction to take "the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God," Eph 6:17; here the reference is not to the whole Bible as such, but to the individual scripture which the Spirit brings to our remembrance for use in time of need, a prerequisite being the regular storing of the mind with Scripture. [rhema]
Jesus did not come to "bring" peace, He came to "bring" the rhema word to the earth. The word translated "bring" is βαλεῖν which means "to throw or let go of a thing without caring where it falls." [906-ballo] As shown in the Disciples Literal New Testament and elsewhere in Matthew:
Do not suppose that I came to cast peace over the earth. I did not come to cast peace, but a sword. (Matthew 10:34 DLNT)
And he answered, “It is not right to take the children's bread and throw (βαλεῖν) it to the dogs.” (Matthew 15:26 ESV)
Jesus came to cast the sword which is the rhema word of God upon the earth without caring where it falls. With regard to His peace, He came to give peace to individual believers:
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.... (John 14:27 ESV)
I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.” (John 16:33 ESV)
The rhema word of God is cast upon the earth. The peace of Jesus is implanted in people, one disciple at a time.
The primary Greek concept of peace was the state of tranquility due to the absence of war. [eirene] It is defined by that which is missing. The Hebrew concept of peace is one of completeness. [shalowm] Comparing the two:
Greek: tranquility is a result of the absence of war
Hebrew: peace is a result of an addition which brings completion
In the beginning was the logos Word of God and Jesus came to bring that which completes the word of God, the rhema Word. Peace with God is now possible because the Word of God is complete.
The Athenians worshiped Eirene, the goddess of Peace. [Eirene] Understanding the deficiency in the Greek meaning of peace increases the clarity of the message Paul delivers in the Areopagus:
The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead.” (Acts 17:30-31 ESV)
The Athenians believed they had peace because their nation was not at war. In reality they were still enemies of God. Their idols were proof they were actually at war with God. They were going to be judged. Their peace was missing something vital:Jesus
There is an interesting translation problem which shows that literal translations sometimes are potentially misleading.
In the Greek text we have an infinitive βαλεῖν. The infinitive in English is indicated by the word "to" so it becomes "to send" (or literally to throw.) But the English "to" can also indicate purpose, but that is not the meaning of the Greek text. Greek does not specify whether it is purpose or result, but we know from other Scriptures that this is a result rather than purpose. The purpose of Jesus coming was to bring peace to people, but only to those who accept his message and believe in him. When some people believe and others do not, the result is strife or division.
It is pretty impossible not to communicate a wrong idea by way of a literal translation. I made a meaning-based and free translation in Danish which I can quote here:
At jeg er kommet til denne jord, betyder ikke, at der fra nu af er fred og ingen fare. Nej, der vil blive splid, helt ind i familiens inderkreds.
English translation: That I have come to this earth does not mean that from now on there will be peace and no danger. No, there will be strife, all the way into the inner circles of the family.
What does the word “Sword” mean in Matthew 10:34?
In garden of Eden, God said to Satan:**
Genesis 3:15 NET
15 And I will put hostility between you and the woman and between your offspring and her offspring; he will strike your head, and you will strike his heel.”
The situation then was the same as in the days of the earthly life of his Son, Jesus Christ, who said:
Matthew 10:34 (NIV)
34 “Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.
Jesus' teachings also brought rifts within the families, (Luke 12:51-53) but this was not due to the fact that some accepted the truths, but because others hartened their hearts against them.The blame lays with the rejecters that opposed the truths and not with those that accepted them. This may also occur in our days, when a member of the family chooses to change religion other than that of the family.
John 8:40 NET
40 But now you are trying to kill me, a man who has told you the truth I heard from God. Abraham did not do this!
John 15:22 NET
22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not be guilty of sin. But they no longer have any excuse for their sin.
John 17:14 NET
14 I have given them your word,[a] and the world has hated them, because they do not belong to the world, just as I do not belong to the world.