Thayer offers 6 definitions for the Greek word ψυχή (“psuche”)(see here). Let's examine each in light of this question and these passages.
1. The breath of life; the vital force which animates the body
This usage is analogous to the πνεῦμα ("pneuma"), the term used to describe the spirit that is added to the body in Genesis 2:7 and parts ways with the body in Ecclesiastes 12:7.
Men cannot kill the psuche in this sense, or the contrast in example A from the OP would not work. That the psuche is contrasted with the body in example A makes this a plausible definition of psuche in that passage.
Example passages B, C, D, and E speak of the end of mortal life and therefore do not use psuche definition 1. Provided examples F & G contrast sacrifice in this life with blessings in the next, they do not employ definition 1 either.
This is the most straightforward understanding of B, C, D, and E--they refer to giving up/losing one's mortal life. Men can take away this psuche. Provided examples F & G contrast sacrifice in this life with blessings in the next, psuche as mortal life is something men can take away, but eternal life is not something they can take away.
That this is not a viable definition for example A is demonstrated by the contradiction outlined in section 6 of my post here.
3. That in which there is life; a living being
This appears to be the sense of the word employed by the Hebrew counterpart, nephesh, in Genesis 2:7--the soul is the combination of body + spirit.
Example A contrasts psuche with body and is therefore not using definition 3 (which includes the body). There is sufficient overlap in definitions 2 & 3 that this definition could be considered for examples B-G, but definition 2 captures the meaning of the passage more simply.
Men can take away this psuche in that they can kill, causing the dissolution of body & spirit.
4. The seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions
This definition does not appear applicable to any of the example passages. This kind of "inner person" or "inner self" is captured by modern metaphors of "mind" or "heart", and (with the possible exception of brain injury) is inaccessible to weapons that kill the body. I suggest that men cannot take this psuche away.
5. A moral being designed for everlasting life
Other men cannot take away this psuche; as moral beings individuals may forfeit their own potential. For a more in-depth argument that this "self" is descriptive of the eternal nature of man, without beginning or end, see my thoughts here. Men's actions cannot reach beyond the grave and therefore cannot take away something that endures beyond their reach.
It is possible to read this definition into examples A, F, & G, though it would be a complex and less-than-intuitive reading. Examples B-E focus on the loss of mortal life and do not employ this definition.
6. An essence which differs from the body and is not dissolved by death
This is quite similar to definition 1, but less precise in its parameters. As such, it quite comfortably fits with example A (this is in fact the definition of psuche Thayer suggests is used in Matthew 10:28).
Examples B-E directly contradict this definition and clearly do not have it in mind. Examples F & G, more metaphorical in nature, are not described as well by this definition as they are by definition 2.
By definition, men cannot take away this psuche by inflicting physical death.
The word psuche is used to describe a variety of ideas, and the various definitions are not fully discrete, there is some overlap among them.
The word has sufficient semantic scope that there are contexts in which the psuche can be taken away by men, and there are contexts where it cannot. When psuche is used to describe that part of man that consciously continues beyond death, it is specifically describing the entity that cannot be taken away by men.
*note that ψυχή ("psuche") is the uninflected or root form of the accusative ψυχήν ("psychen")
Addendum--thoughts on "creative" interpretations of ἀποκτείνω
I suggested above that passage A does not fit with definition 2 of psuche; one might object by proposing variant interpretations of the verb ἀποκτείνω "to kill", and whether it envisions temporary or permanent death.
Note that the verb is used twice in this verse, once to describe what men can do to the body, and once to describe what men cannot do to the psuche. Any interpretation that seeks to make one ἀποκτείνω event temporary and the other permanent does so in contradiction to the message of the verse. We can claim they both describe something temporary, or they both describe something permanent, but creating a hybrid where the verb changes meaning within this single chreia would entirely miss the point Jesus is making about what men can & cannot do.
Let's consider both options:
a. ἀποκτείνω describes bringing about a temporary death. In this case, men can temporarily kill the body but cannot--even temporarily--kill the psuche. This means the psuche does not become dormant/dead/nonexistent, but lives on after physical death, which rules out psuche definition 2.
b. ἀποκτείνω describes bringing about a permanent death. In this case, men cannot permanently kill the psuche (reasonable), but...they can permanently kill the body. This is a problem.
Jesus was resurrected, not reincarnated. This made the blessing of resurrection available to all the family of Adam (1 Cor. 15:22). At the resurrection we do not receive some other entity's body, we receive our own body in its appropriately glorified state. That Jesus did not receive a new body created entirely from scratch, but took up the body that had been crucified, is manifested plainly by the single detail of the Easter story--found in all 4 Gospel accounts--with no omission or variation whatsoever: the tomb was empty.
The resurrection brings life to a body that was dead (see also Ezekiel 37:1-10); therefore, the physical death that can be inflicted by men is not permanent.
Option B from the addendum is ruled out by the Gospel accounts of the resurrection; option A remains. Men can temporarily kill the body; they cannot--even temporarily--kill the psuche.