The word kletois seems to have a slightly different meaning in Matthew 22:14; compared to how that same word is used in
1 Corinthians 1:24.
Here's just a few thoughts concerning why the differences.
In Matthew Jesus is giving a parable that is directed toward the Pharisees when he uses the word at the very end that many are called but few are chosen. It's like He is saying I called you guys, I invited you guys but you chose not to come. Therefore I will choose some and they will come. It reminds me of the little flock that believed and they did hear his voice. I assume these are the Jewish believers that were chosen as stated in Romans 11:6:
So then also, in the present time, there has been a remnant according to the election of grace. And if by grace, it is no longer from works; otherwise grace no longer would be grace.
I think this would include the apostles and all the Jewish believers who believed in Christ. They were chosen by God, He opened up their ears to hear his voice and indeed they came to him.
for the children being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth, Romans 9:11
klétos, The word called is used in 1 Corinthians 1:24 with a similar outcome:
but those called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.
In the same way those who are called both Jews and Greek will come to Him.
It seems that when God calls people that he has chosen, they will come to him.