My answer was taken from "I AM" - Part 3 with redactions to some portions of it.
Let us examine Exodus 3:14. Those Bible translators who follow the King James tradition translate Ex. 3:13-15 like this:
"(:13) And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children
of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent
me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? What shall I
say unto them? (:14) And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM; and he
said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel I AM hath sent
me unto you. (:15) And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou
say unto the children of Israel, Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me
unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all
generations." - ASV (compare JB; LB; and NEB)
First, we need to note that the original manuscripts (and all copies for many hundreds of years thereafter) had no punctuation and no capitalization (for both Old Testament Hebrew and New Testament Greek). So the only reason "I AM" is capitalized in modern Bibles is that many modern translators believe it should be considered a title or name for God.
The two main points to be made about Exodus 3:14 in the original Hebrew are: (1) the word sometimes translated "I AM" in English is not the name of God but merely an explanation of the meaning of his only personal name ("Jehovah" - English form; "Yahweh" - possible Hebrew form), and (2) translating that Hebrew word (ehyeh) as "I Am" is probably incorrect.
You can see the truth of point #1 by carefully examining Ex. 3:13-15. Especially when you see a translation that honestly translates God's name in Ex. 3:15 as "Yahweh" or "Jehovah" (not "LORD"). Notice where God used the word "name" in Ex. 3:15 and what it refers to. (Compare Ps. 83:16, 18 - "fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, O LORD [mistranslation of "Jehovah" - see ASV] .... That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth." - King James Version.)
The New Bible Dictionary, Douglas (ed.), 1962, pp. 478, 479, published by Eerdmans, explains it well:
"Strictly speaking, Yahweh [or
Jehovah' in traditional English form] is the only name' of God .... Elohim [the Hebrew word translated
God' in English] says, this is my name for ever' (Ex. 3:15). Yahweh
[Jehovah], therefore, in contrast with Elohim [
God'], is a proper noun, the name of a person .... He [Moses] inquires, when ... the
children of Israel ... shall say, what (mah [in Hebrew]) is his name?
What shall I say unto them?' (Ex. 3:13). The normal way to ask a name
is to use the [Hebrew] pronoun mî; to use mah invites an answer which
goes further, and gives the meaning (`what?') or substance of the
name. [[For an example of this, see Ex. 13:14 in the NIV
Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Mah, exactly as in Ex. 3:13,
clearly has this meaning and is even translated in the NRSV; RSV; REB;
NAB; NJB; JB; NIV as "what does this mean?" Perhaps an even better
parallel is the use of mah at Ezekiel 37:18 where mah is rendered as
"what you mean" in KJV; NASB; RSV; NRSV; REB; NAB; NJB; JB; NIV; etc.
Also carefully examine the use of mah at Gen. 37:10; Ex. 12:26; Deut.
6:20; 29:24; Josh. 4:6, 21; 1 Sam. 4:6, 14; 15:14; Ezek. 17:12; 18:2]]
"This helps to explain the reply, namely,
I AM THAT I AM'; and He said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM [ehyeh] hath sent me unto you' (Ex. 3:14). By this Moses would not think that God was announcing a new name, nor is it called a
name'; it is just the inner meaning of the name Moses [and the Israelites already] knew. We have here a play upon words; Yahweh' is interpreted by ehyeh. M. Buber translates
I will be as I will be' and expounds it as a promise of God's power and enduring presence with them in the process of deliverance. That something like this is the purport of these words, which in English sound enigmatical, is shown by what follows, Yahweh [`Jehovah'] the God of your fathers .... this is my name for ever' (15). The full content [meaning] of the name comes first, the name itself follows." (The New Bible Dictionary, 2nd ed., Douglas, 1982, Tyndale House, p. 430, is nearly identical to the above quote also.) - [Material in brackets and emphasis added by me – RDB.]
“Nevertheless, Exod. 3 does not appear to give a new name for the
first time but the explanation of a name known already but now
identified as the saving God of Israel....” - The New International
Dictionary of New Testament Theology, p. 69, Vol. 2, Zondervan, 1986.
In its commentary to Exodus 3:14, the JPS Tanakh, Jewish Study Bible, Oxford Edition states:
"God's proper name disclosed in the next verse is YHVH (spelled
yod-heh-vav-heh. In Heb., in ancient times, the "vav" was pronounced
"w"). But here God first tells Moses its meaning; ehyeh-asher-ehyeh,
probably best translated as "I will be what I will be" meaning: "My
nature will become evident from my actions."
The name of God
“Israel’s ancestors knew God as ‘the LORD’, Yahweh (or Jehovah)
(Genesis 2:4; Gen 12:1; Gen 26:2; Gen 28:21; Gen 49:18), but the name
meant little to the Israelites of Moses’ time. God’s revelation to
Moses in the ‘I am’ statement of Exodus 3:14 was an explanation of
what the name Yahweh should have meant to God’s people.” - Bridgeway
“God had made Himself known to Abraham as Jehovah (Genesis 15:7). But
here [Ex. 3:14] He gives the explanation of His name Jehovah. The
patriarchs knew the name Jehovah, but the blessed significance of that
name was not known to them.” - Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible.
NET Bible fn. for Ex, 3:14,15 - “First the verb “I AM” [ehyeh] was used (v. 14) in place of the name to indicate its meaning and to remind Moses of God’s promise to be with him (v. 12). Now in v. 15 the actual name is used for clear identification: “Yahweh…has sent me.” This is the name that the patriarchs invoked and proclaimed in the land of Canaan.”
So we see that Moses is really asking at Ex. 3:13, "when the children of Israel shall say `what is the meaning [mah] of his name?' What shall I say to them?" Therefore, what is given in Ex. 3:14 is not his name at all (which they all knew already) but the meaning (or "explanation") of his personal name "Jehovah." That name (which even Moses knew at this time - his mother's name, in fact, at Ex. 6:20, means "Jehovah is glory" according to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance) is plainly stated in Ex. 3:15 and obviously is to be known and used as God's personal name forever by all his true worshipers. Contrast the 7000 times that "Jehovah" is clearly used as God's name in the scriptures with how many times "I AM" (or ehyeh) is clearly used for God's name (none)!
There is high probability that ehyeh is mistranslated as “I am” (as was pointed out by M. Buber in the New Bible Dictionary quote above). I first suspected this when I saw how ehyeh was translated at Ex. 3:14 in the following Bibles: Moffatt’s translation - “I WILL BE”; Byington’s - “I WILL BE”; Rotherham’s - “I WILL BECOME”; Concordant Literal Version - “I-SHALL-COME-TO-BE”; Julia Smith’s - “I SHALL BE”; Leeser’s - “I WILL BE”; New World Translation - “I SHALL PROVE TO BE.”
In addition were the following alternate readings in footnotes: American Standard Version - "I WILL BE"; NIV Study Bible - "I WILL BE"; Revised Standard Version - "I WILL BE"; New Revised Standard Version - "I WILL BE"; New English Bible - "I WILL BE"; Revised English Bible - "I WILL BE"; Living Bible - "I WILL BE"; Good News Bible - "I WILL BE."
Notice how this respected Bible translates Ex, 3:14:
"And God said to Moses,
Ehyeh (hyh))-Asher-Ehyeh.' (a) He continues, Thus shall you say to the Israelites, "Ehyeh (b) sent me to you."'" –
Tanakh, JPS, 1985.
"(a) Meaning of Heb, uncertain; variously translated: "I Am That I Am;
"I Am Who I AM; I Will Be What I Will Be; etc."
"(b) Others "I AM or "I Will Be."
And even one of the earliest English translations renders it:
14 God saide vnto Moses: I wyl be what I wyll be. And he sayde: Thus
shalt thou saye vnto ye children of Israel: I wyl be hath sent me vnto
you. - Miles Coverdale Bible (1535).
Notice too what the Encyclopedia Britannica had to say on this subject:
"The writer [of Exodus 3:14-15] ... explains it [the meaning of God's
name] by the phrase EHYEH asher EHYEH (Ex. iii., 14); this can be
I am that I am' or moreexactly 'I am wont to be that
which I am wont to be' or `I will be that which I will be .'" - p.
995, 14th ed., v. 12.
And, among the most important of the early translations of the Hebrew Bible are the Greek versions of the Jewish Aquila and Theodotion in the second century A.D. [100’s]
According to Jesus' Words Only it appears that they both have translated the Hebrew ehyeh asher ehyeh of Exodus 3:14a and the ehyeh of 3:14b into Greek as "esomai hos esomai" and "esomai" respectively, which in turn translate into English as "I will be who I will be" and "I will be." - Source
THE NAME OF GOD AS REVEALED IN EXODUS 3:14
An explanation of its meaning, K J Cronin:
"... Jeffrey Tigay, who in his comments on Exodus 3:13-15 in the
Jewish Study Bible states that there is a Divine name in Exodus 3:14,
but he doesn’t identify which part of the verse it is. He proffers 'I
Will Be What I Will Be' for the translation of ehyeh asher ehyeh and
interprets its meaning to be, 'My nature will become evident from My
actions', which is similar to the first of the six interpretations in
Exodus Rabbah 3:6. He proposes ehyeh asher ehyeh as the explanation of
the meaning of the name YHWH, as did Maimonides, and the ehyeh of
3:14b as a shortened form of ehyeh asher ehyeh, as did Halevi, and as
the first person singular imperfect form of the verb root hayah, as
have several other exegetes considered above, and to mean 'I Will Be',
as was first proposed by Aquila and Theodotion. He understands YHWH to
be the corresponding third-person form of hayah, as did Rashbam and
Ibn Ezra, and to mean 'He Will Be'. His interpretation thus draws from
a wide variety of sources and from diverse approaches to the
interpretation of the verse, as one would expect of a study Bible."
Although it takes some effort to further check out the meaning of ehyeh, it is worth it. With a good Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible you can prove to yourself that ehyeh should be translated "I will be" (or a similar rendering) at Ex. 3:14.
In contrast to the paucity of evidence for an "I am" interpretation of ehyeh you will find that all of the books of Moses (the Pentateuch), including Exodus, of course, and the book of Joshua always use ehyeh to mean "I will be." The list of all uses of ehyeh in the entire OT can be found in this footnote. Check out the various translations of these scriptures. A Hebrew interlinear will back up what I have listed.
2 Samuel 7:14 in the annotated list is quoted in the New Testament scriptures at Hebrews 1:5. Notice that when ehyeh (2 Sam. 7:14) was translated into the NT Greek by the inspired Bible writer at Heb. 1:5, he didn’t write ego eimi (“I am”) but ego esomai (“I will be”)! (Esomai is also used at 2 Sam. 7:14 in the Septuagint, the ancient Greek OT.)
Ezekiel 11:20 in the list is also quoted in the NT at Heb. 8:10. Ehyeh in Ezekiel 11:20 is translated as "I will be," of course, and the quoting of this word by the NT writer in Heb. 8:10 is esomai ("I will be") not ego eimi ("I am"). (Ego esomai is used at Ezek. 11:20 in the Septuagint also.)
Not only is ehyeh overwhelmingly translated "I will be" instead of "I am," but in the vast majority of these instances you will find Jehovah speaking and declaring his "power and enduring presence with [his people]" precisely as was explained above in the New Bible Dictionary statement explaining ehyeh at Ex. 3:14!
The Today's Dictionary of the Bible, 1982, Bethany House, pp. 330-331, says of Ex. 3:14 -
"It has been rendered,
I WILL BE that I WILL BE' as an indication of God's sovereignty and immutability" and "the translation ... that probably comes closest to the intention of God at this point is, I
will be there'."
Also see the standard reference The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans, 1984 printing, Vol. 2, p. 1254 (#3), p. 1266 (#5), and p. 1267 (#9), and the A Dictionary of the Bible, Hastings, Vol. 2, pp. 199, 200, Hendrickson Publ., 1988 printing.
The clear testimony of the evidence shows that Ex. 3:14 incorrectly translates ehyeh as "I am" in some Bible translations, and that it should be rendered as something closer to "I WILL BE."
Ex. 3:14 (Greek Septuagint)
Now, after examining the Hebrew of Ex. 3:14, we are ready to look at the ancient Greek translation of Ex. 3:14. This translation is known as the Septuagint.
The Septuagint was translated from the original Hebrew into Greek by Hebrew scholars around 200 years before Jesus was born on earth. The oldest New Testament manuscripts available today show Jesus sometimes quoting from that ancient translation.
But let's actually look at a copy of the Septuagint. The Septuagint Greek and English (Bagster ed.), published by Zondervan Publishing House, 1976, really says:
"And God spoke to Moses, saying, I am THE BEING [Ho On; pronounced `Ha Own']; and he said, Thus shall ye say to the children of Israel, THE BEING [Ho On] has sent me to you." - Ex. 3:14.  Yes, the Greek words used in the Septuagint here are not ego eimi, but HO ON [o Wn]! - See pp. 83, 84, Marshall.
No matter how you translate it into English Ho On is not the same as ego eimi.
St. Augustine (sometime between 413 and 426 A.D.), interpreted Ex. 3:14 (probably from the Septuagint also):
"I am HE WHO IS; and thou shalt say to the children of Israel, `HE WHO
IS sent me unto you!'" - pp. 25, 46, On the Two Cities. (Also see p.
84, Marshall's New Testament Greek Primer.)
The Septuagint Greek at Ex. 3:14 shows God saying Ho On (which probably means "THE BEING," but certainly not "I AM" nor "I have been," etc.). Also the ancient Hebrew manuscripts show God saying ehyeh at Ex. 3:14 (which a search of other uses of the term by God in Moses' writings shows that it actually means "I shall prove to be" or "I will be" but not "I AM").