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11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;

12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.

After Cain had murdered his brother,God cursed the ground/earth for what he had done

Prior to this God had already cursed the land because of what Adam had done

Genesis 3:17 KJV

17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;

Was Cain's curse an addition to what already existed?

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New International Version Genesis 3:

17 To Adam he said, “Because you listened to your wife and ate fruit from the tree about which I commanded you, ‘You must not eat from it,’ “Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat food from it all the days of your life.

This was a general curse on the ground. Adam himself was not the direct object of the curse. The ground was cursed and Adam suffered as a consequence.

On the other hand, Genesis 4:

10 “What have you done?” replied the LORD. “The voice of your brother’s blood cries out to Me from the ground. 11Now you [Cain] are cursed and banished from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12 When [whenever] you till the ground, it will no longer yield its produce to you. You will be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth.”

God cursed Cain directly. As a consequence, whatever ground he tilled, it would not be productive. Cain had to look for another occupation.

Why does God curse the land the second time in Genesis 4:11-12?

God didn't.

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