The Father's kingdom refers to Heaven, and not to this earth.
Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the
kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in
heaven. (Matthew 7:21, KJV)
And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in
heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as
in heaven, so in earth. (Luke 11:2, KJV)
In the Lord's prayer, Jesus taught the disciples that the Father and His kingdom are in Heaven. The disciples were to pray and ask that this kingdom might come to earth and that the Father's will be done on earth just as it is done in Heaven.
Jesus was also clear that this world was not his kingdom.
Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of
this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be
delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence. (John
Jesus also encouraged the disciples with a reminder of what was in store for them in our Father's kingdom.
In my Father's house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would
have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and
prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto
myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. (John 14:2-3, KJV)
Naturally, we are not there yet. Jesus will come to take us there--away from this earth to the place of the Father.
As for an actual location for Heaven, the best I have found from the Bible on this appears in the book of Amos.
Look carefully at the parallelism between the following two verses.
Him that maketh the Pleiades and Orion, and bringeth on the shadow
of death in the morning, and darkeneth the day into night; that
calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face
of the earth; the LORD is His name; (Amos 5:8, JPS)
It is He that buildeth His upper chambers in the heaven, and hath
founded His vault upon the earth; He that calleth for the waters of
the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth; The LORD is
His name. (Amos 9:6, JPS)
It seems that God's heavenly kingdom is somewhere near or past Orion--but admittedly, this is an inference, open to interpretation, and not a point that is relevant to our salvation.
The Father's kingdom of which Jesus speaks cannot be on this earth, but it does have a physical location in which Jesus is preparing a home for the redeemed and to which he will take them upon his return to Earth.