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Ephesians 2:4-7

But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, 5Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) 6And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: 7That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

What do these ages stand for?

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Why is ages just plural you asked.

Many don't know about the ages because it's so often translated as eternal, never world forever more.

There are at least five ages spoken of in scripture and even time before the ages or eons were ever created.

Below you'll see some references for the past ages, the present evil age we are living in, and the next two ages coming.

Here is a definition of a aion which means age

a space of time, an age

◄ 165. aión ► Strong's Concordance aión: a space of time, an age Original Word: αἰών, ῶνος, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: aión Phonetic Spelling: (ahee-ohn') Definition: a space of time, an age Usage: an age, a cycle (of time), especially of the present age as contrasted with the future age, and of one of a series of ages stretching to infinity

1: before ages

But we speak in a mystery, the wisdom of God having been hidden, which God foreordained before the ages for our glory, 2:7<

As well as these. Titus 1:2........., 2 Timothy 2:1-9

Here are a few other verses that talk about the age is yet to come.

And Jesus answering said to them, “The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, 35but those accounted worthy to obtain that age, and the resurrection that is out of the dead, neither marry, nor are they given in marriage; 36for neither are they able to die anymore—for they are like messengers—and they are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. Luke 20:34<

and having tasted the goodness of God's word and the power of the coming age. Hebrews 6:5<

We are now living in the present evil age.

who gave Himself for our sins, that He might deliver us out of the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, Galatians 1:4<

and did make us kings and priests to his God and Father, to him is the glory and the power to the ages of the ages! Rev. 1:6<

There are two ages to come that we know about… Here is one of them:

Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but anyone who speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come. Matthew 12:32<

This talks about two more ages:

To Him be the glory to the Ages of the Ages! Amen. Galatians 1:5<

An age has an end:

As the weeds are collected and burned in the fire, so will it be at the end of the age. Mathew 13:40<

The ages have a purpose:

according to a purpose of the ages, which He made in Christ Jesus our Lord, Eph. 1:10-11<

There has been a mystery hidden from the past ages.

the mystery that was hidden for ages and generations but is now revealed to His saints. Col. 1:26<

There is a king of all the ages:

And to the King of the ages, the incorruptible, invisible, only wise God, [is] honor and glory through the ages of the ages! Amen.<

The ages or were made through the son.

in these last days speaks to us in [His] Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom He also made the ages; Hebrew 1:2<

God promised something before the ages were ever made. Titus 1:2

Talking about a time before the ages were in existence.

upon hope of life age-during, which God, who doth not lie, did promise before times of ages, 2 Tim. 1:9<

to the only wise God our Saviour, is glory and greatness, power and authority, both now and to all the ages! Amen. Jude 1:25<

and He who is living, and I became dead, and behold, I am living through the ages of the ages. Amen! And I have the keys of Hades and of death. Rev. 1:18<

He will be reigning In the next age of ages.

And the seventh messenger sounded the trumpet, and there came great voices in Heaven, saying, “The kingdoms of the world became [those] of our Lord and of His Christ, and He will reign through the ages of the ages!” Rev:11:15<

Even the smoke goes up untill The ages of ages

And the smoke of their torment goes up until the Ages of the Ages; Rev. 11:11<

His servants will also reign with him through the ages of the ages.

3and there will no longer be any curse, and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His servants will serve Him, 4and they will see His face, and His Name [is] on their foreheads, 5and there will be no night there, and they have no need of [the] light of a lamp and of [the] light of [the] sun, because the LORD God gives them light, and they will reign through the ages of the ages.Rev:22 3-5<

To answer your second question: What do these ages stand for?

These ages stand for the coming reign of Christ in the heavens and on the earth.

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Actually a very interesting question - one that now has more ‘light’ to shine on it.

The recent discoveries of the Dead Sea Scrolls have unearthed some very interesting perspectives on ‘ages’. Their commentaries talk about periods of time - Jubilees, Ages, Onahs.

The Dead Sea Scroll calendar, also called the Zadok calendar, maps out time from the Creation (in Genesis) to the Creation of a New Heavens and a New Earth (in Revelation). Time is divided up into Jubilees (which are well documented), and periods of five-hundred-year Onahs, and there are four Ages.

Each of the four Ages are divided into fourteen Onahs. But the point is, there are four - so thats why the plurality. The age (time) of Man, the age (time) of Torah, the age (time) of Grace, and finally the age (time) of the Lord.

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Hebrews 1: (kjv)

2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds (ages);

G165 αἰών aiōn ahee-ohn' From the same as G104; properly an age; by extension perpetuity (also past); by implication the world; specifically (Jewish) a Messianic period (present or future): - age, course, eternal, (for) ever (-more), [n-]ever, (beginning of the, while the) world (began, without end). Compare G5550.

Ephesians 2:7  That in the ages(G165 aiōn) to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

Learn more about the Hebrew and Greek occurrence and their renderings THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS FOR "WORLD", "EARTH", ETC.(https://www.therain.org/appendixes/app129.html)

The Bible teaches, three significant ages of time. Aka the three world ages sometimes called the earth and heaven ages. Same earth, same heaven, different ages.

2 Peter 3 (kjv):

1.The world(age) that then was that perished (Not Noahs flood. Read Genesis 1).

2.The current age we're in reserved for Judgment of the ungodly. (the evil rudiments will burn up not the earth itself. Do a Greek word study for how the bible uses "elements").

3.The new heavens and earth wherein righteousness dwells. aka the eternity.

This will document some of the language used to refer to the First age. "THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD." https://www.therain.org/appendixes/app146.html

Paul would refer to this in part (and people don't understand; they think its levels or something). Concerning what John was shown of the coming eternity in Revelations prophecy. The third earth/heaven age.

2 Corinthians 12:2-4

2 I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up to the third heaven.

3 And I knew such a man, (whether in the body, or out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;)

4 How that he was caught up into paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter.

Jesus teaches this as the casting down, or overthrow ,The Foundations of the (First) world (age).

Matthew 13:35

That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.

Ephesians 1:4-6

4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:

5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

Those God chose from the first age, were justified then to be used to bring about Gods plans now, in this current age. Example the apostles, Paul, Jeremiah, and the other prophets and people God chose through Israel to bring prophecy and Gods plans to pass.

Jeremiah 1:5

5 Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations.

Maybe some useful information in my post here

Are the stars in Revelation 12:1, 4 angels?

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Aion/aionios, depending on context also means eternity/forever. Don't tell me it doesn't. Because if not, then God is not eternal and we don't have eternal life.

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