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"For the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!". Luke 22:22. ESV

  1. As. "..the Son of Man goes "since" or "for" it has been determined". In Matthew 19:3 kata is "for". ESV

  2. or, As. "the Son of Man goes "as/in the way" it has been determined". Judas' betrayal was part of "in the way", or "in the circumstances in which" it has been determined.

  3. As. Does "as" include e.g:

                    A. Pilate's involvement. Matthew 27:24
    
                    B. The crowd's shouting. Mark15:13
    
                    C. The sin of the world. John 1:29?
    

Are A, B and C, along with Judas' involvement, also determined circumstances relating to "as/in the way" in which Jesus went?

2

With regard to 'in', Professor J.H. Moulton gives a list of the cases governing the prepositions, and says:

"If en represents unity, the order of the frequency of the other Prepositions work out thus; eis, .64; ek, .34; epi, .32; pros, .25; dia, .24; apo, .24; kata, .17;" [and so on] (Grammar of N.T. Greek, p98)

Now I quote from a different source and just repeat all that it says about kata (minus the many scripture reference examples provided):

x. kata governs two cases (the Genitive and Accusative) and denotes two motions, vertical and horizontal.

  1. With the Genitive it denotes vertical motion, the opposite of ana, descent, or detraction from a higher place or plane, and direction to, or against.

  2. With the Accusative it denotes horizontal motion, along which the action proceeds. Sometimes it includes the purpose or intention. In this connection eis marks the more immediate purpose, pros the ultimate purpose; and kata the destination to be reached. It has regard to the duration of the motion and the accordance, conformity or proportion of the two things which such motion thus connects." (The Companion Bible, Appendix 104, p149)

Now, I trust Greek scholars will understand exactly what this all means, and be able to arrive at a conclusion. I would hazard a guess that your No. 2 applies -

"in the way" it has been determined". Judas' betrayal was part of "in the way", or "in the circumstances in which" it has been determined."

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ESV Luke 22:

22 For the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!".

as
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

it has been determined,
ὡρισμένον (hōrismenon)
Verb - Perfect Participle Middle or Passive - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 3724: From horion; to mark out or bound, i.e. to appoint, decree, specify.

In this case, κατὰ is followed by an accusative verb.

Thayer's Greek Lexicon:

I. With the genitive
II. With the accusative

  1. of place;
  2. of Time
  3. it denotes reference, relation, proportion, of various sorts;
    c. according to, agreeably to; in reference to agreement or conformity to a standard

My paraphrase of Luke 22:22a:
The Son of Man will go as it has been agreed upon.

New International Version

The Son of Man will go as it has been decreed.

The grammatical pattern in Matthew 19:3 is similar:

And Pharisees came up to him and tested him by asking, “Is it lawful to divorce one’s wife for [κατὰ] any [accusative] cause [accusative]?”

My paraphrase:
Is it lawful to divorce one’s wife for any cause according to the standard agreement?

OP: If something were decreed to happen would not all the circumstances that led up to it happening fall under that decree? kata, down.

Yes, in some English sense of down. The Greek sense is slightly different, Strong's Concordance:

Usage: gen: against, down from, throughout, by;
acc: over against, among, daily, day-by-day, each day, according to, by way of.

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  • @ Tony Chan If something were decreed to happen would not all the circumstances that led up to it happening fall under that decree? kata, down.
    – C. Stroud
    Sep 26 at 15:41
  • Good point. I added :)
    – Tony Chan
    Sep 26 at 20:28
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The proposition κατὰ changes its meaning depending on what follows. In Luke 22:22 we have κατὰ τὸ ὡρισμένον. That is, both τὸ and ὡρισμένον are accusative. Thus, according to BDAG, the meaning of κατὰ is:

5. marker of norm of similarity or homogeneity, according to, in accordance with, in conformity with, eg, Luke 2:22, 39, John 18:31, 19:7, Heb 7:5, in accordance with what has been determined, Luke 22:22, ...

So, the question here is, according to whose determination? The answer is actually straight forward - Jesus always acted in accordance with the Torah and the prophecies of the OT. Note the comments in Bengel's Gnomen -

Luke 22:22. Κατἀ τὸ ὡρισμένον, according to what was determined) What was determined or appointed, we may know from Scripture. See Luke 22:37 (“This that is written must yet be accomplished”); Mark 14:21 (“The Son of Man goeth, as it is written of Him”).—V. g.]

Similarly for the Cambridge commentary -

  1. as it was determined “being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God,” Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27-28. “The Lamb slain from the foundation of the world,” Revelation 13:8. The type of Judas was Ahithophel, Ps. 12:9.

Gill is a little more bold -

as it was determined; in the counsels and purposes of God, and agreed to by Christ in the covenant of grace; see Acts 2:23 the death of Christ, the manner of it, and the means by which it was brought about, were all predetermined by God; yet this did not, in the least, excuse the sin of those concerned in it, nor exempt them from punishment:

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