In Eze 1 we have:
26 Above the expanse over their heads was the likeness of a throne with the appearance of sapphire, and on the throne high above was a
figure like that of a man. 27 From what seemed to be His waist up,
I saw a gleam like amber, with what looked like fire within it all
around. And from what seemed to be His waist down, I saw what looked
like fire; and brilliant light surrounded Him.
28 The appearance of the brilliant light all around Him was like that of a rainbow in a cloud on a rainy day. This was the appearance
of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell
facedown and heard a voice speaking.
Note the "continuation" of the same scene (Eze 1-10 is the same vision) in Eze 10 -
1 And I looked and saw above the expanse, above the heads of the cherubim, the likeness of a throne of sapphire. 2 And the LORD
said to the man clothed in linen, “Go inside the wheelwork beneath the
cherubim. Fill your hands with burning coals from among the cherubim
and scatter them over the city.” And as I watched, he went in.
3 Now when the man went in, the cherubim were standing on the south side of the temple, and a cloud filled the inner court. 4
Then the glory of the LORD rose from above the cherubim and stood over
the threshold of the temple. The temple was filled with the cloud, and
the court was filled with the brightness of the glory of the LORD.
To me, the cloud appears as separate from the glory of the LORD which is helpfully clarified in Heb 1:3.
There is another sense here as well. "Glory", whether כָּבוֹד in Hebrew (see appendix below), or δόξα in Greek (see BDAG), both mean "reputation of character" more than "brightness. That is, Jesus as the Son of God is the revelation of the glorious character of God. See Phil 2:11, John 11:40, 2 Cor 1:20, 4:6, Rom 15:7, and 1 Cor 10:31, Col 1:27, etc.
APPENDIX 1 - כָּבוֹד = glory from BDB
1 abudance, riches Genesis 31:1 (J), Isaiah 10:3; Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66:11,12; Nahum 2:10; Psalm 49:17; Psalm 49:18.
2 honour, splendour, glory, of external condition and circumstances:
a. of men: of Joseph in Egypt Genesis 45:18 (E); of Job Job 19:9; Job 29:20; of Ephraim Hosea 9:11, Samaria Hosea 10:5; עשֶׁר וְכָכוֺד wealth and splendour 1 Chronicles 29:12,28; 2Chronicles 17:5; 18:1; 32:27; Proverbs 3:16; Proverbs 8:18; Proverbs 22:4; ׳עשֶׁר (וּ)נְכָסִים וְכ2Chronicles 1:11,12 = ׳גם כ ׳גם ע 1 Kings 3:13; Ecclesiastes 6:2; "" עשֶׁר Proverbs 11:16; man was crowned with וְהָדָר ׳כ at his creation, Psalm 8:6; the king is given ׳כ "" הוֺד וְהָדָר Psalm 21:6.
b. of things, עָשְׁרוֺ ׳כ Esther 5:11 splendour of his wealth, of a throne 1 Samuel 2:8 (poem), Isaiah 22:23; Jeremiah 14:21; Jeremiah 17:12; a kingdom Esther 1:4; chariots Isaiah 22:18; priestly robes Exodus 28:2,40 (P); Lebanon Isaiah 35:2; Isaiah 60:13; forest Isaiah 10:18 (figurative of royal might); trees Ezekiel 31:18; temple Haggai 2:3,9; restored holy land Psalm 84:12; Isaiah 4:2,5; Jerusalem Isaiah 62:2.
c. of God, glory, (1) in historic theophanies: to Moses Exodus 33:18,22 (J); "" אֹתֹת Numbers 14:22 (JE); "" גָּדְלוֺ Deuteronomy 5:21. P uses יהוה ׳כ for theophanies of the Exodus Exodus 16:7,10; Exodus 24:16,17; Exodus 40:34,35; Leviticus 9:6,23; Numbers 14:10; Numbers 16:19; Numbers 17:7; Numbers 20:6, compare 2Chronicles 5:14 = 1 Kings 8:11; 2 Chronicles 7:1,2,3; so Ezekiel, Ezekiel 1:28; Ezekiel 3:12,23; Ezekiel 10:4 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 10:18; Ezekiel 11:23; Ezekiel 43:4,5; Ezekiel 44:4; with the variation אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל ׳כ Ezekiel 8:4; Ezekiel 9:3; Ezekiel 10:19; Ezekiel 11:22; Ezekiel 43:2, and הַכָּבוֺד Ezekiel 3:23; the sacred tent was sanctified by the Glory Exodus 29:43 (P), and the temple was ׳מְקוֺם מִשְׁכַּן כ Psalm 26:8; when the ark was captured, the Glory went into exile from Israel 1 Samuel 4:21,22. (2) in historic and ideal manifestations to the pious mind Yahweh's, name is a name of glory Psalm 72:19; Nehemiah 9:5; his eyes eyes of glory Isaiah 3:8; in the temple his glory is seen Psalm 63:3; it is על השׁמים Psalm 113:4; על כל הארץ Psalm 57:6; Psalm 57:12; in a thunderstorm he is אֵל הַכָּבוֺד Psalm 29:3; his glory is לְעוֺלָם Psalm 104:31; it is great Psalm 138:5; above all the earth Psalm 108:6; the whole earth is full of it Isaiah 6:3 the heavens are declaring כְּבוֺד אֵל Psalm 19:2; with reference to the divine reign הֲדַר מַלְכוּתוֺ ׳כּ, Psalm 145:12; ׳הֲדַר כ הוֺדֶ֑ךָ Psalm 145:5. (3) he is מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֺד Psalm 24:7; Psalm 24:8; Psalm 24:9; Psalm 24:10 (twice in verse); he will appear in his glory Psalm 102:17, his glory will be revealed in a march through the wilderness to the holy land Isaiah 40:5, the land will see it Isaiah 35:2, shine with it Ezekiel 43:3, and it will dwell in the land Psalm 85:10; it will be to the rearward of Israel Isaiah 58:8; it will arise and be seen upon Jerusalem Isaiah 60:1,2; Yahweh will be the glory in the midst of her Zechariah 2:9; the temple will be filled with it Haggai 2:7; the earth will be filled with a knowledge of it Habakkuk 2:14, and with it Numbers 14:21 (JE) Psalm 72:19; it will be declared among the nations and all will see it Isaiah 66:18,19 (twice in verse); Psalm 97:6 and peoples and kings revere it Psalm 102:16; Isaiah 59:19; ׳י will reign before his elders in glory Isaiah 24:23; the resting-place of the Messiah will be כָּבוֺד Isaiah 11:10.
3 honour, dignity of position ׳מנע מִכּ withhold from honour Numbers 24:11 (E); ׳ירד מִכּ descend from Jeremiah 48:18; ׳שׁלח אחר כ send after Zechariah 2:12; ׳רוּם בכ Psalm 112:9; ׳שׁכב בכ Isaiah 14:18; ׳תמך כ Proverbs 29:23; ׳יַרְבֶּה כ Daniel 11:39; ׳לקח כ take me to honour Psalm 73:24; not becoming to fools Proverbs 26:1; ׳לפני כ ענוה before honour (goeth) humility Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 18:22; antithesis קלון Hosea 4:7; Habakkuk 2:16; Proverbs 3:35, קִיִקָלוֺן Habakkuk 2:16; כָּבוֺד is used as collective, of honoured men, dignitaries, nobility כבוד ישׂראל Micah 1:15; elsewhere as construct before various nations or with suffixes only Isaiah 5:13; Isaiah 8:7; Isaiah 10:16; Isaiah 16:14; Isaiah 17:3,4; Isaiah 21:16; Isaiah 22:24.
4 honour, reputation, of character, of man ׳וְלֹאלְֿךָ לְכ2Chronicles 26:18 neither will it be for thine honour; "" חכמה Ecclesiastes 10:1; צדקה Proverbs 21:21; antith. כְּלִמָּה Psalm 4:3; וְחֵקֶר כְּבֹדָם כָּבוֺד Proverbs 25:27 and searching out of their glory is (not) glory לאישׁ ׳כ Proverbs 20:3; אֱלֹהִים ׳כ מְלָכִים חֲקֹר דָּבָר ׳הַסְתֵּר דָּבָר וכ Proverbs 25:2 the honour of God is to conceal a thing, but the honour of kings is to search out a thing.
5 my honour, poetic of the seat of honour in the inner man, the noblest part of man "" נפשׁי Genesis 49:6 (poem) Psalm 7:6; לִבִּי Psalm 16:9; Psalm 108:2; it is called upon to זמּר Psalm 30:13 (read כְּבוֺדִי for כָּבוֺד); עוּרָה Psalm 57:9.
6 honour, reverence, glory, as due to one or ascribed to one:
a. of men, due to a father Malachi 1:6; honour done to David by Nathan's prophecy 1 Chronicles 17:18; לְ ׳עשׂה כ2Chronicles 32:33 do honour to; לְ ׳נתן כ Proverbs 26:8; "" ישׁע Psalm 62:8.
b. of God, כְּבוֺדִי the honour due to me (Yahweh) Isaiah 42:8; Isaiah 43:7; Isaiah 48:11 שְׁמֶ֑ךָ ׳כ Psalm 79:9; לְ ׳נתן כ 1 Samuel 6:5; Jeremiah 13:16; Malachi 2:2; Psalm 115:1; לְ ׳שׂים כ Joshua 7:19 (J), Isaiah 42:12; ׳שׂים כ תהלתוֺ Psalm 66:2; ועז לְ ׳יהב כ Psalm 29:1; Psalm 96:7 = 1 Chronicles 16:28; שְׁמוֺ לְ ׳יהב כ Psalm 29:2; Psalm 96:8 = 1 Chronicles 16:29; שְׁמוֺ ׳זמּר כ Psalm 66:2; סמּר כבודו בגוים Psalm 96:3 = 1 Chronicles 16:24; אמר מלכותך ׳כ Psalm 145:11; נתן כבודי בגוים Ezekiel 39:21; אֹמֵר כָּבוֺד Psalm 29:9 say Glory; ׳יִעְלְזוּ בְּכ exult with (ascriptions of) glory Psalm 149:5.
7 glory as the object of honour, reverence and glorifying, כְּבוֺדִי Psalm 3:4 my glory (the one whom I glorify); כְּבוֺדָם Psalm 106:20 their glory; כְּבוֺדוֺ Jeremiah 2:11.