No, not from 1 Cor. 15:8. The word "last" in that verse refers to the verb appeared.
However, there is clear indication that Paul was the last apostle. While the word
"apostolos" -Strong's Gr. 652 - does mean a messenger, or one who is sent, it has the added meaning of being specially selected and appointed by Christ. (1)
"and when it became day, he called near his disciples, and having chosen from them twelve, whom also he named apostles," (Luke 6:13, YLT)
"And when the hour come, he reclined (at meat), and the twelve apostles with him," (Luke 22:14, YLT)
The scriptures clearly distinguish the twelve from the rest of the disciples.
When Peter spoke of the need to replace Judas, and the "lot" fell on Matthias (Acts 1: 15-26) it was not an appointment by Christ. And, Matthias fades from the scene. Acts 1:22-23 are the only two verses in the NT that mention him.
But there is an important qualification Peter made in that selection, and that is whoever was selected had to have been a witness of Christ's resurrection. They had to have seen him in person, face to face after Christ rose from the grave.
"beginning from the baptism of John, unto the day in which he was received up from us, one of these to become with us a witness of his rising again.'" (Acts 1:22, YLT)
While there were many disciples in the first century AD who saw Jesus after His death on the cross, how many after the first century AD can make that claim? Can anyone today claim to have witnessed Jesus' resurrection?
The word "appeared" in 1 Cor. 15:8 is Strong's Gr. 3708 "harao", and its usage in vs. 8 is found under definition 5 as "I was seen, showed myself, appeared" after Christ's resurrection. (2)
Paul was chosen by Jesus to be an apostle. Paul was a witness to Jesus and to His resurrection. Jesus' instruction to Ananias are clear.
"And the Lord said unto him, `Be going on, because a choice vessel to Me is this one, to bear My name before nations and kings -- the sons also of Israel;" (Acts. 9:15, YLT)
Therefore, Paul was the last apostle whom Christ chose.
The new covenant, the new "heaven (God) and earth (man)" agreement / contract between God and man was established by the blood of Christ as the last blood sacrifice that would ever be required by God, and was published, preached and made known by the 12 chosen apostles of Christ whom He sent for that mission / purpose.
"Paul, a called apostle of Jesus Christ,..." (1 Cor. 1:1, YLT)
"Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God,..." (Col. 1:1, YLT)
"Paul, an apostle -- not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who did raise him out of the dead " (Gal. 1:1, YLT)
Some others here refer to the mention in Rom. 16:7 of Andronicas and Junias as being apostles because Paul named them with him. But they are misreading the text. Paul stated that they were noted by the other apostles, not that they were apostles. Their work with Paul was great enough to be known to the other eleven apostles.
The old Mosaic covenant, the old heaven and earth was established according to the promise to Abraham with his offspring upon the the 12 tribes. The new covenant was carried forth from God to the world by the "chosen" 12 apostles of Jesus Christ. And, both together are the 24 elders of Revelation representing the totality of the faithful from both covenants.
Paul himself showed the order / hierarchy.
"28 And some, indeed, did God set in the assembly, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, afterwards powers, afterwards gifts of healings, helpings, governings, divers kinds of tongues;
29 [are] all apostles? [are] all prophets? [are] all teachers? [are] all powers?
30 have all gifts of healings? do all speak with tongues? do all interpret?" (1 Cor. 12: 28-30, YLT)
The apostles were the highest authority established by Jesus Christ for the assemblies, and that is the true meaning of Rom. 13 which has been completely twisted and misused for centuries. (3) Not all of the disciples had this authority or power.
As a side note - Paul himself stated that the gifts of the Holy Spirit would become useless, or fade away (1 Cor. 13:8-10). The spiritual gifts were for the building up of the assemblies (1 Cor. 14:12). They were given through the laying on of the hands of the apostles (Acts 5:12; 8:17-18; 19:1-6).
Having already established that an apostle was defined as one having witnessed the resurrection of Christ, as one having been directly appointed by Christ, how then does the laying on of hands by those apostles continue past the first century AD?
Apostolos, Strong's Gr. 652 Biblehub
Horao, Strong's Gr. 3708 Biblehub
The First Audience Perspective of Romans 13 - ShreddingTheVeil