One of the tricky problems in early Christian history is determining the exact calendars used in the 1st century AD. There were three different calendars at use in Judea and Galilee during the 1st century: the civil calendar, the religious calendar and the sabbath year. Dates from historical sources, primarily Josephus have some consistency, but also various inconsistencies in a few cases (see "The Sabbath year Cycle in Josephus" by Don Blosser).

One potential aid to resolving the questions about these calendars are double dates, monumental or papyrus artifacts that list a date Judean calendar and give same date in either the Roman calendar or Greek Macedonian calendar. These potential double dates may in some cases be of only recent discovery due to ongoing archaeological work.

Is there a list of such known dates somewhere, or papers on these kinds of double dates?

  • Greetings. I suspect this question will attract moderation, but nevertheless to help you with your question, check the following site. It uses and outlines the calendar sourced via the Dead Sea Scrolls. - Biblefacts.org
    – Dave
    Sep 5, 2021 at 18:48
  • This question is likely to be closed, however, I suggest you examine the passage in Luke 3:1, 2 for a quadruple date, especially when compared with Josephus' material.
    – Dottard
    Sep 5, 2021 at 21:26


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