What they must have meant was that the messiah must be born in Bethlehem, not Galilee -- and they were right! But to say that no prophet could be born in Galilee is obviously false and the pharisees would know this.
Galilee is a huge region, basically everything north of the Jezreel valley until Lebanon. In terms of the inheritance of the 12 tribes, it would be Zebulum, Issachar, Naphtali and Asher, so 1/3 of the twelve tribes have their inheritance in Galilee.
But in terms of where the prominent prophets in the Bible came from, very little is known except for a handful of prophets.
Prophets with unknown birth location:
Habbakuk -- is the least known prophet. Nothing is known about him (the rabbinic tradition is just mishradic tales)
Obadiah (early christian tradition traces him to shechem somewhere in Ephraim, but this is unreliable)
Prophets in which a city is named:
Amos, from Tekoa, near Bethlehem
Jonah from Gath-hepher which is in Galilee
Samuel, from Ramathaim-zophim believed to be present day Rameh which is in Galilee (but there is doubt as to where "Ramathaim-zophim" was)
Elijah was from Tishbe in present day Jordan, but no one knows the location of this city.
Jeremiah from Anathoth near Jerusalem
Micah from Moresheth (although there is doubt as to location, it's somewhere in Judah)
Nahum may have been from Capernaum in Galilee, but this is uncertain
Prophets from the North (somewhere in Israel):
Prophets from the South (somehwere in Judah):
Prophets not born in Israel
- Elijah (Jordan)
- Zecharaiah (Babylon, Persian Exile)
- Malachi (Persian Exile)
- Haggai (Persian Exile)
Note that of the 12 judges in the book of judges, Elon is from Galilee.
But even though there is doubt as to where most of the prophets were born, what is certain is that almost all of them were murdered in Jerusalem:
Luke 13.33 ESV
Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day
following, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from