It is claimed that Jude (vss. 14-15) quoted 1 Enoch 1:9. At first glance, that appears to be true. First, let us consider Jude 14-15:

"Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, 'Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints, to execute judgment on all, to convict all who are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.”

Suppose we now contrast this with the wording of 1 Enoch 1:9:

"And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones to execute judgment upon all, and to destroy all the ungodly: and to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."

Who is quoting whom here, and why?

  • @NigelJ Is it your contention, then, that the Spirit of God: both inerrant and infallible, had to rely on the pseudepigraphal writings of an unknown author or authors to properly illuminate Jude's Letter to the saints? This would be the same book that is littered with inconsistencies including the introduction of an entire host of angels never once mentioned in Scripture, that perfect, genderless, non-sexual, celestial majesties lusted, then fornicated with "oh-so-beautiful" human females (warts, pimples, dirt, filth, and all), and which claims Enoch himself is the Messiah (71)?
    – Xeno
    Aug 21, 2021 at 0:32
  • @NigelJ Sorry, I'm not upset. The more I looked into the BoE, the more it struck me that there are multiple, totally unknown authors. As the list I compiled from reputable sources grew and the list of errors and contradictions blossomed, it become evident that 1 Enoch is more comic book fantasy than reality. Eventually, I realized that, while some of the material preceded the N/T (maybe 200 BC), much of it could not possibly have been written before the N/T. These two verses specifically stood out as copied from Jude (1 E. 1:9). There are others that do the same, plagiarizing biblical texts.
    – Xeno
    Aug 21, 2021 at 4:56
  • One writer commented: "Because it is so difficult to date the origin of the BoE, and because numerous portions of the book suggest that the writer was influenced heavily by the N/T, another scholar commentating on Jude, wrote: 'There are sharp variations between the statement allegedly cited by Jude and the actual statement as it appears in Jude. There is more reason for supposing that the book of Jude is older than this so-called “BoE" and that the author quoted from Jude.' Apologetics Press.
    – Xeno
    Aug 21, 2021 at 5:01
  • 1
    I think it is important to note that the text does not even mention the so-called "book of Enoch." Jude was merely quoting from the prophet Enoch by inspiration, not from the "book of Enoch." It would be difficult to imagine that Enoch ever wrote anything since he left this earth about 1000 years before the development of any known written language.
    – oldhermit
    Sep 20, 2021 at 12:23
  • 1
    @oldhermit Absolutely. The Holy Spirit does not need to look to pseudepigrapha to convey His message to humanity. We must conclude that the reference to Enoch in the Letter of Jude speaks of the actual Enoch, the real man (7th from Adam) that never had anything to do with such spurious false writings, nor could he.
    – Xeno
    Sep 20, 2021 at 18:35

2 Answers 2


This amazing “quote” in Jude 14, 15 could be due to any of the following phenomena:

  1. Jude actually quoted from the book of 1 Enoch 1:9. However, this does not make 1 Enoch a Biblical book any more than Cyrus or Epimenides – see appendix below. (The Book of Revelation also quotes from 1 Enoch, see appendix.)
  2. Jude quotes from the real book of Enoch, now lost, that the (false) book of 1 Enoch attempts to imitate and change by also quoting.
  3. Jude quoted the antediluvian patriarch Enoch via an oral tradition as did the book of 1 Enoch. Thus, Jude says nothing about the book of 1 Enoch which, under this scenario, could have been written much later than the patriarch to include such oral traditions to lend it greater credibility. A similar phenomenon has occurred with the “modern” book of Jasher.

Which of these actually occurred, cannot now be known. However, I think that option #2 above is extremely unlikely. I personally believe that options #1 and #3 are far more likely.

[The book of 1 Enoch is almost certain NOT quoting from Jude; copies of the book of Jude have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls dating from before the time of Jesus.]

APPENDIX - Bible Quotes and Allusions from Non-Biblical Sources.

Source Reference
Direct Quotes
Book of Jashir, “O sun, stand still over Gibeon, O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon.” Josh 10:13
Book of Jashar, Lament for Jonathan. 1 Sam 1:18-27
King Hiram’s Order (in a letter) to provide materials for Solomon’s temple 2 Chron 2:11-16
King Cyrus’ Edict to free Jews and return to Judah 2 Chron 36:23
King Cyrus’ Edict to free Jews and return to Judah Ezra 1:2-4
Rehum’s Letter to King Artaxerxes Ezra 4:9-16
King Artaxerxes’ Letter to Rehum Ezra 4:17-22
Tattenai’s Letter to King Darius Ezra 5:7-17
King Darius’ Letter and Decree concerning the building of the temple in Jerusalem on the basis of King Cyrus’ decree found at Ecbatana Ezra 6:3-12
King Artaxerxes’ Decree to establish Jewish autonomy in Judah Ezra 7:12-26
Sanballat’s letter to Nehemiah Neh 6:6-7
King Nebuchadnezzar’s Decree after the fiery furnace Dan 3:28-29
King Nebuchadnezzar’s Decree and confession after his insanity Dan 4
King Darius’ decree in writing concerning Daniel’s God Dan 6:25-27
Epimenides the Cretan, 6th Cent BC, “In him we live and move and have our being” Acts 17:28
Aratus of Cilicia, Didactic poem, Phaenomena, (An Invocation to Zeus), line 5, 270 BC, “We are his offspring”. Acts 17:28
Epimenides the Cretan, 6th Cent BC, “Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.” Titus 1:12
Unnamed sources
Book of Acts and Gospel of Luke compiled from numerous sources (see Acts 1:1-4 & Luke 1:1-4)
Enoch’s prophecy about coming judgement (see Deut 33:2, 3) 1 En 1:9 Jude 14, 15
Noah’s flood and preaching to spirits in prison (???) 1 En 21:6 1 Peter 3:19, 20
“After this I saw …an innumerable and uncountable multitude who stood before the glory of the Lord of the Spirits.” 1 Enoch 40:1 Rev 7:9
“…as I looked, behold a star fell down from heaven…” 1 Enoch 86:1 Rev 9:1
Trumpet blasts heralding cosmic events in Apocalypse of Zephaniah chapters 9 – 12 Rev 8 & 9
Mythological Allusions
Hades (river Styx, etc) Luke 16:19-31
Hecate as Christ Rev 1:12-16
Chimera as sea beast Rev 13:1-11
Tartarus (= Hell) 1 Peter 2:4

This is far from an exhaustive list. It is immediately obvious that a Bible quote from a non-Biblical source does not canonize the source.

  • I'd argue that there are a few flaws in argument 3. It's almost certain that the 1 Book of Enoch as we have it today was written from 300 to 100 BCE. I've never seen anyone argue for a post Catholic epistle date. It's very likely Jude is quoting directly from Enoch.
    – lebaptiste
    Sep 20, 2021 at 2:04
  • @lebaptiste - I agree and that is what I said above.
    – Dottard
    Sep 20, 2021 at 2:33

Jude quoted Enoch

Jude clearly quoted from or paraphrased a version of the Book of Enoch, not the other way around. The Yale Library states:

The Book of Enoch, written during the second century B.C.E., is one of the most important non-canonical pseudepigraphical works.

While it is likely that the current version includes later additions, it is hard to imagine that Jude's lines, avowedly quoting Enoch, would be one of these. Using Occam's Razor leads to the conclusion that Jude is quoting Enoch, not the other way around.

Jude also summarized Enoch's teaching

Not only did Jude quote from the Book of Enoch, he also summarized part of the book earlier in his letter when he said:

He has kept, with eternal chains in darkness for the judgment of the great day, the angels who did not keep their own position but deserted their proper dwelling. In the same way, Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them committed sexual immorality and practiced perversions, just as angels did, and serve as an example by undergoing the punishment of eternal fire. (1:6-7)

This description almost certainly derives from Enoch's first chapters, known as the Book of the Watchers:

Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselves wives: "Ye have wrought great destruction on the earth: And ye shall have no peace nor forgiveness of sin." (Enoch 1:12)


We can deduce from the above that Jude regarded the Book of Enoch as an authentic source describing the course of the fallen angels mentioned in Gen. 6. Those who believe that Jude was inspired by the Holy Spirit will admit that at least this much of the Book of Enoch is also inspired. Whether Jude regarded the entire book as scripture is debatable. We are probably well served to regard it, as the Jewish Encyclopedia does, as

... one of the most important pieces of apocalyptic literature; it furnishes extensive contributions to our knowledge of Jewish folklore in the last pre-Christian centuries; it shows apocalyptic literature in its beginnings, and above all it is a source of information upon the religious ideas of Judaism, especially concerning the Messiah...

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.