All the verbs in the Great Commission are participles except for μαθητεύσατε ("make disciples). For example, πορευθέντες (going) is often translated as an imperative although it is a participle. What is the best way to translate the participles to reflect what Jesus was saying?
πορευθέντες ⸀οὖν μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, ⸁βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, 20 διδάσκοντες αὐτοὺς τηρεῖν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν·* καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ⸉μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἰμι⸊ πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος. ⸆ (Matt. 28:19–20, NA28)
The following is the grammar related to the participle. These participles are anarthrous and form dependent clauses to the clause μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη.
Participle (declinable verbal adjective) I. Adjectival Participles: adjectival nature is emphasized over verbal; if the participle is articular, it must be adjectival; if anarthrous, it may be adjectival (617–21) A. Adjectival Proper (Dependent) (617–19) 1. Attributive Participles: who, which; functions like an attributive adjective, in any standard attributive position (618) 2. Predicate Participles: functions like a predicate adjective in predicate position (though usually in predicate position, the participle is adverbial) (618–19) B. Substantival (Independent): the one who, the thing which; functions in the place of a substantive; can perform virtually any function a noun can; verbal aspect usually retained (619–21) II. Verbal Participles: verbal nature is emphasized over adjectival; only with anarthrous participles, usually nominative and dependent on main verb (621–53) A. Dependent Verbal Participles (622–50) 1. Adverbial (or Circumstantial): modifies the verb, answering the question When? (temporal), How? (means, manner), Why? (purpose, cause), etc. (622–40) a. Temporal: answers the question When? May be antecedent (after doing, after he did), contemporaneous (while doing), or subsequent (before doing, before he does) (623–27) b. Manner: answers the question, How? by + participle of emotion or attitude (easily confused with means) (627–28) c. Means: by means of (answering the question, How?); indicates the means by which the action of a finite verb is accomplished; defines or explains the controlling verb; usually follows the verb (628–30) d. Cause: because (answers the question, Why?); indicates the cause or reason or ground of the action of the finite verb; usually precedes its verb (631–32) e. Condition: if (implies a condition on which the fulfillment of the idea indicated by the main verb depends) (632–33) f. Concession: although (implies that the state or action of the main verb is true in spite of the state or action of the participle) (634–35) g. Purpose (Telic): translate like an infinitive or with the purpose of (indicates the purpose/intent of the action of the finite verb); usually follows main verb (635–37) h. Result: with the result of (indicates the actual outcome or result of the action of the main verb); can be internal (logical) or external (temporal); follows main verb (637–39) 2. Attendant Circumstance: translate as finite verb + and (it describes an action that, in some sense, is coordinate with the finite verb; “piggy-backs” on mood of main verb); five structural clues usually found: • tense of participle: aorist • tense of main verb: aorist • mood of main verb: imperative or indicative • participle precedes the main verb (both in word order and time of event) • frequent in narrative, infrequent elsewhere (640–45) 3. Indirect Discourse: anarthrous participle in the accusative case, in conjunction with an accusative noun or pronoun, sometimes indicates indirect discourse after a verb of perception or communication; retains tense of direct discourse 4. Complementary: completes the thought of another verb; e.g., “I do not cease praying for you” (646) 5. Periphrastic: anarthrous participle used with a verb of being to form a finite verbal idea; see table below for various combinations (647–49): 6. Redundant (Pleonastic): verb of saying (or thinking) used with a participle with basically the same meaning (as in ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν) (649–50) B. Independent Verbal Participles (650–53) 1. As an Imperative (Imperatival): functions just like an imperative; participle not to be attached to any verb in the context, grammatically independent (650–52) 2. As an Indicative (Independent Proper or Absolute): functions like declarative indicative; participle stands alone in a declarative sense as the only verb in a clause or sentence (653) III. The Participle Absolute (653–55) A. Nominative Absolute: substantival participle that fits the case description of nominativus pendens—logical rather than syntactical subject at beginning of a sentence (654) B. Genitive Absolute: anarthrous genitive participle with genitive substantive, functioning adverbially (usually temporal), but grammatically independent of verb in main clause (654–55) Wallace, D. B. (1996). Greek Grammar beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (pp. 758–760). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.