Note: I am the author of the C.SE answer (and the question) that prompted the OP's question.
OP: Can 1 Cor 13:8-10 be used as to prove that radical Continuationism is necessarily true?
I would answer most likely yes, in the sense that 1 Cor 13:8-10 offers no reason to think that the Holy Spirit would change His modus operandi before the arrival of the perfect. Paul teaches that the spiritual gifts are intended for the common good of the body of Christ (1 Cor 12:7), and he doesn't wish anybody to be lacking in any gift (1 Cor 1:7), and the only major event that would render (at least some of) the spiritual gifts obsolete is the arrival of the perfect (1 Cor 13:10). Therefore, before the perfect comes, there is no reason to think the Holy Spirit would lose His interest in empowering the saints and equipping them for the common good.
For the interested reader, my C.SE answer presents a deductive argument for Continuationism based on 1 Cor 13, but here is the essence of the argument:
1) There is a time T when the perfect will come and, as a consequence, (at least) some spiritual gifts will cease.
I think the chapter asserts very clearly -- and most would agree -- that there is an instant T in the timeline of history when the perfect (whatever that means) will come. And as a consequence, at least three specific gifts (tongues, prophecy and knowledge) will become obsolete and cease. Why? Because they are regarded as partial, imperfect. They only provide a partial experience, a forestate, of the supernatural kingdom of God. This effect is made clear in verses 1-3:
If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. 2 And if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3 If I give away all I have, and if I deliver up my body to be burned, but have not love, I gain nothing.
In his 'thought experiment', Paul exaggerates to the extreme the supernatural qualities of the spiritual gifts, making the point that they can in fact be quite spectacular, and possibly become a distraction from what is most important: love. But spectacular and everything, they are imperfect, they are partial, they are simply a foretaste and a shadow of the real deal: the perfect (which is to come). In other words, the spiritual gifts are useful, are there for a reason, they have their place in the body of Christ (the Church), but there will be an instant T when the perfect will come, and these spiritual gifts, though useful in the meantime, will have accomplished their temporary purpose, will no longer be necessary, and, therefore, will cease and be replaced by the perfect.
- There is a time T when the perfect arrives.
- Before T, the spiritual gifts are useful and available for the body of Christ.
- After T, the spiritual gifts are obsolete (because the perfect is much better).
2) The time T when the perfect will come is most likely the time of the establishment of the New Heaven and New Earth (Revelation 21)
Point 1 is fairly uncontroversial. To the best of my knowledge, most cessationists and continuationists accept it. However, what is often subject of heated debate is the placement of instant T in the timeline. Cessationists typically claim that T is situated at the closing of the canon at the end of the 1st century (let's call this hypothesis 1, or H1). Instead, I believe that a better candidate for T is the moment of the establishment of the New Heaven and New Earth (Rev 21), which hasn't happened yet (let's call this hypothesis 2, or H2).
So, in order to make a case for H2, I will present an abductive argument for why H2 makes more sense than H1, given the data we have.
H2 makes more sense than H1 in light of 1 Corinthians 13 itself
Let's read verses 8-12:
8 Love never ends. As for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away. 9 For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10 but when the perfect comes, the partial will pass away. 11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. 12 For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known.
When the perfect comes:
- We will have perfect knowledge (no more partial knowledge).
- We will see face to face (no more unclear, mysterious revelations).
- We will achieve full maturity (no more childish ways).
All these descriptions make perfect sense under H2. When Jesus returns and establishes his kingdom in a New Heaven and a New Earth, those resurrected to eternal life will:
- enjoy supernatural, glorified bodies (like the angels),
- be free from the flesh and its sinful tendencies,
- have the opportunity to literally see the Lord face to face,
- have an entire eternity to learn all the mysteries of the kingdom of God.
In contrast, under H1, these descriptions make much less sense:
- Are we really seeing face to face now? If that's the case, I invite those who believe this to post an answer to the question When shall we see “face to face”? 1 Corinthians 13:12
- Do we really have access to the full knowledge and understanding of the mysteries of the kingdom of God now? Do we really have answers to all the questions? Even with the Bible at hand, there are lots of disagreements, ambiguities, controversies, conflicting interpretations, mysteries about God, the spirit realm and even the physical realm that we currently have no clue about.
- Have we really achieved full maturity? Are we in glorified bodies now? Are we beyond the sinful tendencies of the fallen human nature?
H2 makes more sense than H1 in light of the historical and testimonial evidence
If H1 is true, there should be no evidence of spiritual gifts operating in the Church after the apostolic age (full cessationism). On the contrary, if H2 is true, we should be able to find (at least some) evidence of the spiritual gifts still in action after the apostolic age. Thus, the evidence seems to favor H2 over H1. For example, see:
If we accept points 1) and 2), then it follows that now <= T, i.e., that the perfect has not yet come and, therefore, that we are still in the period of history where the gifts of the Spirit are available for the common good of the Church (1 Cor 12:7). This is consistent with the New Testament's overall positive attitude towards the spiritual gifts and the power of the Spirit:
- 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. [Acts 1:8, ESV]
- 29 And now, Lord, look upon their threats and grant to your servants to continue to speak your word with all boldness, 30 while you stretch out your hand to heal, and signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” 31 And when they had prayed, the place in which they were gathered together was shaken, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and continued to speak the word of God with boldness. [Acts 4:29-31, ESV]
- 4 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5 and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; 6 and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who empowers them all in everyone. 7 To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. [1 Cor 12:4-7, ESV]
- Pursue love, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. 2 For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit. 3 On the other hand, the one who prophesies speaks to people for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. 4 The one who speaks in a tongue builds up himself, but the one who prophesies builds up the church. 5 Now I want you all to speak in tongues, but even more to prophesy. The one who prophesies is greater than the one who speaks in tongues, unless someone interprets, so that the church may be built up. [1 Cor 14:1-5, ESV]
- 39 So, my brothers, earnestly desire to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues. 40 But all things should be done decently and in order. [1 Cor 14:39-40, ESV]
- 2 For since the message declared by angels proved to be reliable, and every transgression or disobedience received a just retribution, 3 how shall we escape if we neglect such a great salvation? It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard, 4 while God also bore witness by signs and wonders and various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. [Hebrews 2:2-4, ESV]
- 4 and my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5 so that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men but in the power of God. [1 Cor 2:4-5, ESV]
- 18 For I will not venture to speak of anything except what Christ has accomplished through me to bring the Gentiles to obedience—by word and deed, 19 by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God—so that from Jerusalem and all the way around to Illyricum I have fulfilled the ministry of the gospel of Christ; [Romans 15:18-19, ESV]
- 18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit, [Ephesians 5:18, ESV]
Answers to objections
Objection. This does not cover the fact that signs cease (when the thing signified appears). Miracles, tongues and prophecies are signs which are given. Gifts which are qualities (mercy, love, patience) do not cease. This distinction is being ignored.
Answer. Paul explicitly said that tongues and prophecies would cease with the arrival of the perfect. Has the perfect arrived? See the answer above. Furthermore, Paul explicitly encouraged these gifts:
1 Pursue love, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts, especially that you may prophesy. [1 Cor 14:1, ESV]
5 Now I want you all to speak in tongues, but even more to prophesy. The one who prophesies is greater than the one who speaks in tongues, unless someone interprets, so that the church may be built up. [1 Cor 14:5, ESV]
39 So, my brothers, earnestly desire to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues. [1 Cor 14:39, ESV]
Tongues edify the speaker, prophecies edify the hearers. These are gifts useful for the common good of the Church (1 Cor 12:7). Did the need for common good suddenly stop existing after the 1st century? Of course not. According to Paul, the only reason why tongues and prophecies (and knowledge) would cease was the eventual arrival of the perfect. Again, has the perfect arrived? See the answer above.
Regarding miracles, I'm not aware of a single passage affirming that miracles would cease after the 1st century. The closest to that is faith that produces miracles (1 Cor 13:2 ... and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing), but has faith ceased? Of course not.
If you are aware of some compelling deductive argument for Cessationism, you are welcome to post it here.
Objection. Good argument for favoring H2 and for bringing other verses to support for the claim of "overall positive attitude towards the spiritual gifts and the power of the Spirit". But you haven't made the case why you go with option #3 (radical: gift for every believer) instead of option #2 (cautious: up to HS's discretion), esp in light of 1 Cor 12:7 ("to each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good") and Heb 2:4 ("... distributed according to his will"). Even the other subtypes of Cessationism (such as the concentric) support contemporary spiritual gift in new areas.
Answer. Good catch. No, I never meant to say that each believer will necessarily have access to all the gifts, everywhere, at all times. It is theoretically possible, I can concede that, but as the verses you cite indicate, the distribution of the gifts is ultimately subject to God's will. This is further stressed in 1 Cor 12:27-30:
27 Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it. 28 And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues. 29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? 30 Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? 31 But earnestly desire the higher gifts.
That said, I don't see anything wrong if a believer decides to ask God for more, as Paul himself exhorted Christians to earnestly desire the spiritual gifts. If you earnestly desire gift X but the Holy Spirit doesn't want it for you, at least there is some hope that you will receive an answer as to why, just like Paul received an answer when he asked the Lord to remove the thorn in his flesh: 8 Three times I pleaded with the Lord about this, that it should leave me. 9 But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” (2 Cor 12:8-9, ESV).