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The interlinear Grk. feature to my Bible software helps with interpretation, digging deeper for original meaning. The syntax is helpful though I have no formal training here!

In verse 44, the reference to "the" Holy Spirit in Strong's (G3588. ὁ ho) appears twice, where in verse 45 "the" Holy Spirit" is found only once. Not to mention Acts 5:32. All are definite article.

Dr. Zodhiates lays out that which I believe is fundamental to the question: the noun pneúma. He applies his ordinal numbers, which in most references I will apply # I - Spirit as "Breath," though in the above, it seems #III (1) (B) is where our Apostle is going. Yet, how are we to handle this # III ordinal number?

( Strong’s Greek #4151 pneúma…noun from pnéō (4154), to breathe. The following is abridged

(I) Breath.

 **(A)  Of the mouth or nostrils, a breathing, blast**

(II) Spirit.

 (A)    The vital spirit or life, the principle of life residing in man. The breath breathed by God
   into man and again returning to God, the spiritual entity in man 
 (B)    The rational spirit, mind, element of life. (1) Generally, spirit distinct from the body and
    soul.

(III) A spirit; a simple, incorporeal, immaterial being

    (A) Spoken of created spirits: 

  (1) Of the human soul or spirit, after its departure from the body

    (2) Of an evil spirit, demon…”

 **(B) Of God in reference to His incorporeality**

 **(C) Of Christ in His exalted spiritual nature,** His nature as true and proper God

Zodhiates, S. (2000). The complete word study dictionary: New Testament (electronic ed.). Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers. )

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  • There is no diff with or without the article, the same can be seen with "the law" and "law" without definite article. In Greek the definite article is used almost always with all nouns. You can simply start informal Greek training with Duolingo and get going slowly to learn it, very easily and free. The article is actually neutral το (to) not ο for the pneuma.
    – Michael16
    Aug 12 at 10:30
  • 1
    'The Spirit the holy', Acts 10:44, is an emphasis, stating first the Person, and then the quality, both with article. This construction is also seen in 1 John 1:2, for example, 'the Life, the eternal' which 'was with the Father'.
    – Nigel J
    Aug 12 at 12:34
  • Thank you Michael, I'll check out Duolingo. Aug 12 at 16:35
  • I opened the software to the original (Tisch, Byz etc.) Greek, they all have 'The Spirit the holy' - got it. I like the take on the "Person then the quality." Thanks Nigel. Aug 12 at 16:49
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The phrase "Holy Spirit" appears in the Greek NT about 90 times with a large variety of settings such as:

  • πνεύμα ἁγίος ("spirit holy"), eg, Matt 1:18, Mark 1:8, Luke 1:15, 35, 41, 67, Luke 2:26, 3:16, 4:1, John 1:33, Acts 1:2, 16, 2:4, 33, 4:8, 6:5, 11:16, 1 Cor 12:3, 1 Thess 1:5, 6, Heb 2:4, etc.
  • πνεύμα ... ἁγίος ("spirit ... holy), eg, Matt 1:20, Luke 2:25, Acts 1:5, etc,
  • ὁ πνεύμα ὁ ἁγίος (the spirit the holy), eg, Matt 12:32, Mark 3:29, 12:36, 13:11, Luke 3:22, John 14:26, Acts 5:32, 10:44, 47, Eph 4:30, etc.
  • ὁ πνεύμα ... ὁ ἁγίος (the spirit ... the holy), eg, Eph 1;13, 1 Thess 4:8, etc.
  • ὁ πνεύμα ἁγίος (the spirit holy), eg, Acts 10:45, 1 Cor 13:13, etc.
  • ὁ ἁγίος πνεύμα (the holy spirit), eg, Matt 28:19, Acts 1:8, 2:38, 10:45, 16:6, etc.
  • ἁγίος πνεύμα (holy spirit), eg, 1 Cor 6:19, etc.

In all these places, we have the same English translation "The Holy Spirit", or very similar as the grammar requires.

This above list is not exhaustive, and further, does not include other forms such as, "Spirit of Christ", "Spirit of God", "the Spirit", "Spirit of Truth", etc, etc.

Thus, the NT writers used a large variety of grammatical forms when discussing the Holy Spirit, depending on context, grammatical form, case (nominative, dative, genitive, etc) which displays they complete ease with which the term had already matured in the NT writers' minds.

Thus, I would place no significance upon the differences between these various forms of the Holy Spirit's designation in the NT.

Acts 10:44, 45

In the specific text asked by the OP we have:

  • V44 - τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον = "the Spirit the Holy", nominative neuter singular (same as V47 and Acts 5:32)
  • V45 - τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος = "of the Holy Spirit", genitive neuter singular.

Both have the same significance as can be seen by their parallel use.

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The Giver, God (The Holy Spirit), and the gift (holy spirit) are two aspects that should be clearly distinguished from each other

Dr. E. W. Bullinger, in the Companion Bible, Appendix 101. II. 14., states that:

when there are two articles present in the Greek (to pneuma to hagion), [it] means “the Spirit the Holy [Spirit]”

and

pneuma hagion (without Articles) is never used of the Giver (the Holy Spirit), but only and always of His gift

In applying this distinction to the outpouring of the holy spirit to the Gentiles in Acts Chapter 10, verses 44 and 45 unfold clearly. Fitting these verses with the context it follows that:

Acts 10:44 refers to the gift of holy spirit, while

Acts 10:45 can be understood as the gift from God or the gift which is holy spirit

While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. Acts 10:44-45

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