- The Samaritan viewpoint
The Samaritan's believed in the Prophet that Moses predicted, but not the Messiah , a decendent of King David.
See Why did the Samaritan woman use the term, Messiah, in John 4:25?
Their Scriptures were limited to the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. Moses was regarded as the only prophet and intercessor in the final judgment. They also believed that 6,000 years after creation, a Restorer would arise and would live on earth for 110 years. On the judgment day the righteous would be resurrected in paradise and the wicked roasted in eternal fire.
Potts, D. R. (2003). Samaria, Samaritans. In C. Brand, C. Draper, A. England, S. Bond, E. R. Clendenen, & T. C. Butler (Eds.), Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (p. 1436). Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
Moses, as mediator of the Torah, deserves adoration as the third focus of Samaritan faith. Blessings are offered “in the name of Moses the faithful,” the last and most exalted of the prophets. His birth is exalted in a treatise, the Molad Mosheh. He is depicted as a pre-existent primordial light who came to illuminate the world.
Neusner, J., Avery-Peck, A. J., & Green, W. S. (Eds.). (2000). In The encyclopedia of Judaism (Vol. 5, p. 2257). Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill.
The Samaritans accepted the leading role of Judah, because their own Torah stated such in Genesis 49: 10,[ 13] but not the leading role of David’s family (2 Sam. 7: 8-9)[ 14] since this text was outside of “the canon” for the Samaritans traditions.
Lizorkin-Eyzenberg, Eli. The Jewish Gospel of John: Discovering Jesus, King of All Israel (p. 19). Jewish Studies for Christians. Kindle Edition.
a) What they knew about Jesus
While she would not immediately recognize him, the Samaritans had likely heard about what Jesus was doing.
But he went out and began to talk freely about it, and to spread the news, so that Jesus could no longer openly enter a town, but was out in desolate places, and people were coming to him from every quarter.
(Mark 1:45, ESV)
Then one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, praising God with a loud voice; 16 and he fell on his face at Jesus’ feet, giving him thanks. Now he was a Samaritan. 17 Then Jesus answered, “Were not ten cleansed? Where are the nine? 18 Was no one found to return and give praise to God except this foreigner?” 19 And he said to him, “Rise and go your way; your faith has made you well.”
(Luke 17:15–19, ESV)
It is likely they knew he travelled through Samaria.
Now when Jesus learned that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 2(although Jesus himself did not baptize, but only his disciples), 3 he left Judea and departed again for Galilee. 4 And he had to pass through Samaria.
(John 4:1–4, ESV)
- The Samaritan woman reponded to a Jew
The Samaritan expected Jesus as other Jews to have nothing to do with them.
The Samaritan woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a woman of Samaria?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.)
(John 4:9, ESV)
Then, the who do you think you are question:
Are you greater than our father Jacob? He gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did his sons and his livestock.
(John 4:12, ESV)
Jesus' five men response elevated the woman's thoughts to a prophet.
- She responded as to a Jewish prophet
Most likely this was a loaded question. She would expect Jesus to give the pat Jewish answer, then she could write him off.
"Our fathers worshiped on this mountain, but you say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship” (John 4:20, ESV).
But, Jesus' answer neither mountain, but must worship God in spirit and truth united Samaritans and Jews. What the Samaritans expected from the Prophet Moses talked about was for him to cross the barriers as Jesus did.
So, she gave the indirect question about the Messiah, still addressing Jesus as a Jew.
- She responded as to the Prophet
The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ). When he comes, he will tell us all things.” 26 Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am he.”
(John 4:25–26, ESV)
She believed Jesus without further questioning.
The Samaritan woman did start out with the general term prophet, which somewhat overlapped Paul. But, it is unlikely that the Samaritan woman understood the gift of prophecy. However, the Samaritans recognized no prophets after Moses, and only expected the prophet Moses foretold. Thus, it seems unlikely that a Samaritan would recognize the gift of prophecy.
See How would a Samaritan woman know the Messiah might soon arrive (Jn. 4:25)?
Paul in 1 Cor. 14 refers to prophecy as a gift of the Holy Spirit.