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Often, while reading Hebrews 10, we might miss a very subtle point as we contemplate our duty to worship (forsaking the assembly):

Hebrews 10:25: "[Not] forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near" (emphasis added).

Can we know what "day" this passage is referring to?

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The phrase, "the day", or, "that day" occurs frequently in the NT and almost always refers to Jesus' second coming and its associated judgement, resurrection, etc, as per the following:

  • Matt 7:22 - Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?’
  • Matt 26:29 - I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in My Father’s kingdom.”
  • Mark 13:32 - No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.
  • Mark 14:25 - Truly I tell you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it anew in the kingdom of God.”
  • Luke 10:12 - I tell you, it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom than for that town.
  • Luke 17:31 - On that day, let no one on the housetop come down to retrieve his possessions. Likewise, let no one in the field return for anything he has left behind.
  • Phil 1:10 - so that you may be able to test and prove what is best and may be pure and blameless for the day of Christ
  • 2 Tim 1:12 - For this reason, even though I suffer as I do, I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed, and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him for that day.
  • 2 Tim 1:18 - May the Lord grant Onesiphorus His mercy on that day. You know very well how much he ministered to me in Ephesus.
  • 2 Tim 4:8 - From now on there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day—and not only to me, but to all who crave His appearing.
  • 2 Thess 1:10 - on the day He comes to be glorified in His saints and regarded with wonder by all who have believed, including you who have believed our testimony.
  • 1 Cor 3:12, 13 - If anyone builds on this foundation using gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw, his workmanship will be evident, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will prove the quality of each man’s work.

Note the comments of Ellicott on Heb 10:25 -

The day.—See 1 Corinthians 3:13—“the day shall declare” every man’s work. Elsewhere we read of “the day of the Lord” (1 Thessalonians 5:2); “the day of Christ” (Philippians 1:10). The words of Jesus to His disciples (Matthew 24; Luke 17) had enabled all who were willing to hear to understand “the signs of the times.” As the writer gave these warnings, the day when the Son of Man should come in His kingdom, bringing judgment upon Jerusalem (Matthew 16:28), was close at hand—that day which is distinctly presented to us in the New Testament as the type of His final coming.

The Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary is similar -

the day approaching—This, the shortest designation of the day of the Lord's coming, occurs elsewhere only in 1 Co 3:13; a confirmation of the Pauline authorship of this Epistle. The Church being in all ages kept uncertain how soon Christ is coming, the day is, and has been, in each age, practically always near; whence, believers have been called on always to be watching for it as nigh at hand. The Hebrews were now living close upon One of those great types and foretastes of it, the destruction of Jerusalem (Mt 24:1, 2), "the bloody and fiery dawn of the great day; that day is the day of days, the ending day of all days, the settling day of all days, the day of the promotion of time into eternity, the day which, for the Church, breaks through and breaks off the night of the present world" [Delitzsch in Alford].

CONCLUSION

I agree - the "Day" that was approaching was the day of Jesus return.

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Can we know what “day” Hebrews 10:25 is referring to?

Hebrews 10:25: "[Not] forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near" (emphasis added).

Yes --It refers to the "Day of Jehovah"

At Pentecost of 33 C.E., Peter explained that what was occurring was the fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy (Joel 2:28-32 read below on link) concerning the outpouring of God’s spirit and that this too was due to happen before “the great and illustrious day of Jehovah.” (Acts 2:16-21)

That “day of Jehovah” came in 70 C.E., when, in fulfillment of his Word, Jehovah caused the armies of Rome to execute divine judgment upon the nation that had rejected the Son of God and defiantly shouted: “We have no king but Caesar.”​—John 19:15; Daniel 9:24-27. This is the first fulfillment, there is also a further fulfillment.

Some miniature "Days of Jehovah" that befell Judah and Jerusalem. Read Isaiah 2:11-17, Ezek 13:5, Zep.1:4-8

Further fulfillment

Zephaniah 2:2-3 ASV

2 before the decree bring forth, [a]before the day pass as the chaff, before the fierce anger of Jehovah come upon you, before the day of Jehovah’s anger come upon you. 3 Seek ye Jehovah, all ye meek of the earth, that have kept his ordinances; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may be ye will be hid in the day of Jehovah’s anger.

https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Joel+2%3A28-32&version=NASB;NET;ASV

Zephaniah 1:18 ASV

18 Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of Jehovah’s wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he will make an end, yea, a terrible end, of all them that dwell in the land.

Ezekiel 7:19 ASV

19 They shall cast their silver in the streets, and their gold shall be as an unclean thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of Jehovah: they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels; because it hath been the stumbling block of their iniquity.

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As Dottard suggested, this could possibly be a reference to the coming of Christ. Contextually, however, it could have other implications.

“As you see the day approaching” may refer to the impending time of persecution of which the writer previously warned his readers. If this is the case, the "assembling of yourselves together" would certainly be of primary importance as a source of encouragement to one another.

It may also refer to the first day of the week which marks the corporate day of worship when the Church comes together. I think this is more likely the case considering what follows.

The writer says that our fidelity to one another is demonstrated in two ways.

  1. Our relationship to one another in love and good works and

  2. Our responsibility to fellowship. Both of these involve…

a. Exhorting one another, and

b. Individual participation in corporate worship. This would include the corporate fellowship of the table which is the purpose of the assembly of the saints.

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