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In 1 Corinthians 8:5, Paul says

or though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,)

What is the difference in Greek between God and gods? Is this a modern thing that the English translation has done? I can't imagine it as so because of the sacredness of the name Elohim / Jehovah to the Hebrew people.

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The difference is that one is plural and the other is not. Greek had not invented upper- and lower-case letters at the time of Paul (as some languages still have not). Paul's word is θεοι (the-oi); where he writes of God, as in 1 Cor 8:4, it's θεος (the-os). Or, more accurately, something like ΘΕΟΙ and ΘΕΟC; but there is no differentiation between the initial letters.

English can differentiate. It's translation into English which renders the name of the one true God as God and other gods (which rather by definition are not Gods) with a lower-case g.

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