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What is the basic difference between sin vs. transgression? khata or chata/ḥāṭā and pesha

Take for example Lev 16:16 ESV to be specific about the various words describing sin:

Thus he shall make atonement for the Holy Place, because of the uncleannesses of the people of Israel and because of their transgressions, all their sins. And so he shall do for the tent of meeting, which dwells with them in the midst of their uncleannesses.

There are many verses throughout the entire Bible which use the terms very similarly and others that imply a marked contrast. Is transgression a bigger wrongdoing than sin that is missing the mark as in error and failing to be perfect? Is the difference is fall more towards intentional vs unintentional motivation or attitude?

The noun aveirah in rabbinical Hebrew derives from the verb avar, "pass over," which in a small number of uses in the Hebrew Bible can also carry the context of transgress, as in Deuteronomy 17:2 "in transgressing his covenant" (לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתֹֽו la-'avor berithu). In Modern Israeli Hebrew, aveira is the word for crime. (wikipedia)

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2 Answers 2

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Lev 16:16 in the BSB says:

So he shall make atonement for the Most Holy Place because of the (a) impurities and (b) rebellious acts of the Israelites in regard to all their (c) sins. He is to do the same for the Tent of Meeting which abides among them, because it is surrounded by their (a) impurities.

Note that there are three different words in this verse related to sin:

(a) טֻמְאָה (tum'ah) = impurity or uncleanness see Appendix A

(b) פֶשַׁע (pesha) = transgression, rebellious acts see Appendix B

(c) חַטָּאָה (chatta'ah) = sin, sinful thing see Appendix C

APPENDIX A - BDB entry for טֻמְאָה noun feminine uncleanness

absolute ׳ט Numbers 5:19 4t.; construct טֻמְאַת Leviticus 5:3 4t.; suffix טֻמְאָתֵךְ Ezekiel 22:15 2t. etc., 18 t. suffixes; plural טֻמְאֹת Leviticus 16:16,19; suffix טֻמְאוֺתֵיכֶם Ezekiel 36:25,29; טֻמְאֹתָם Leviticus 16:16

1 sexual Numbers 5:19 (P), Lamentations 1:9.

2 of a foul or filthy mass Ezekiel 24:11 (in a caldron), 2 Chronicles 29:16 (in the temple).

3 ethical and religious Leviticus 16:16 (P); Ezekiel 22:15; Ezekiel 24:13; Ezekiel 39:24; ׳כפר על הקדשׁ מט Leviticus 16:16 (P); ׳קדּשׁ מט Leviticus 16:19 (P); ׳טהר מט Ezekiel 24:13; Ezekiel 36:25; ׳הושׁיע מכל ט Ezekiel 36:29; ׳רוּחַ הט unclean spirit, which inspired the prophets to lie Zechariah 13:2.

4 ritual, of men Leviticus 5:3 (twice in verse); Leviticus 7:20,21; Leviticus 14:19; Leviticus 15:3 (twice in verse); Leviticus 15:31 (twice in verse); Numbers 19:13 (all P), Leviticus 22:3,5 (H); women 2 Samuel 11:4; וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ וְהִיא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת מִטֻמְאָתָהּ see Dr; a time favourable to conception RSK 276; Leviticus 15:25,26,30 (P), Leviticus 18:19 (H), Ezekiel 36:17; of meats Judges 13:7,14.

5 local, of the nations Ezra 6:21; Ezra 9:11.

APPENDIX B - BDB entry for מֶּ֫שַׁע noun masculine

Psalm 19:14 transgression; — absolute ׳פ Exodus 22:8 +, מָּ֑שַׁע Proverbs 10:9 +; construct מֶּשַׁע Genesis 50:17 +; suffix מִּשְׁעִי Genesis 31:16 14t. suffixes; plural מְּשָׁעִים Proverbs 10:12; construct מִּשְׁעֵי Amos 1:3 +, etc.; —

1 transgression against individuals Genesis 31:36; Genesis 50:17 (twice in verse); Exodus 22:8 (E), 1 Samuel 24:12; 1 Samuel 25:28; Proverbs 10:19; Proverbs 17:19; Proverbs 29:6,16,22. שְׂפָתַיִם ׳פ Proverbs 12:13; על כלפֿשׁעים תְּכַסֶה אַהֲבָה Proverbs 10:12, compare Proverbs 17:9; Proverbs 19:11; Proverbs 28:13.

2 of nation, against nation: Amos 1:3,6,9,11,13; Amos 2:1; of land Proverbs 28:2. Elsewhere

3 against God:

a. in General, "" חטאת Isaiah 58:1; Isaiah 59:12; Micah 1:5 (twice in verse); Micah 1:13; Micah 3:8; Amos 5:12; "" עון Ezekiel 21:29; Psalm 107:17; ׳עשׂה פ Ezekiel 18:22,28; ׳ביום פ Ezekiel 33:12; ׳רַבּוּ פ Isaiah 59:12; Job 35:6; Jeremiah 5:6(?); יֹסִיף על ׳חטאתו פ Job 34:37 he addeth transgression unto his sin; ׳יִלְדֵי פ Isaiah 57:4; personified as evil spirit, נאם פשׁע Psalm 36:2.

b. as recognized by sinner; he knows it Psalm 51:5, makes known concerning it to ׳י Psalm 32:5, does not cover it (כסה) Job 31:33; turns from it Isaiah 59:20; Ezekiel 18:30; casts it away from him Ezekiel 18:31.

c. God deals with it: by visiting it (פקד) Amos 3:14; Psalm 89:33, dealing with one according to it, עשׂה כ Ezekiel 39:24, making it known to sinner Job 13:23; Job 36:9; punishing in various ways: ׳מִמּ because of it Isaiah 53:5,8; with על, acc. to it Amos 2:4,6; Lamentations 1:5,22; for it, with ב Isaiah 50:1; ׳עֹל פ Lamentations 1:14 yoke of transgression; personified, ׳וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם בְּיַד פ Job 8:4; be does not grant forgiveness to it, ׳לאֹ נאשׂ ל Exodus 23:21; Joshua 24:19(E).

d. God forgives (נשׂא) it Exodus 34:7; Numbers 14:18 (J), Job 7:21, compare Psalm 32:1; pardons (סלח) 1 Kings 8:50; passes over (עבר על, compare Proverbs 19:11) Micah 7:18; removes (הרחיק) Psalm 103:12; covers over (כפר) Psalm 65:4 ;-compare (of priest) ׳וְכִמֶּר עַלהַֿקֹּדֶשׁ מִפ Leviticus 16:16, and confession of ׳פ over (על) goat Leviticus 16:21; — God blots out (מחה) Isaiah 43:25; Isaiah 44:22; Psalm 51:3; ׳וּפ אַלתִּֿזְכֹּר Psalm 25:7; delivers from, הציל מן Psalm 39:9. — Job 35:15 read מֶּשַׁע for פַשׁ q. v.

4 guilt of transgression (compare עון 2), ׳בְּלִי פ without (guilt of) transgression Job 33:9; Job 34:6; ׳לא פ Psalm 59:4; עלינו ׳פ Ezekiel 33:10; כבד ׳עליה פ Isaiah 24:20; ׳בְּרֹב פ Psalm 5:11; ׳נקיתי מפ Psalm 19:14; יִמַּמְּאוּ: ׳בְּכָלפֿ defile themselves with all (the guilt of) transgressions Ezekiel 14:11; Ezekiel 37:23; ׳חָתֻם בִּצְרוֺר פ Job 14:17.

5 punishment for transgression, Daniel 8:12,13; Daniel 9:24, compare try עון 3

6 offering for transgression, האתן בכורי פשׁעי Micah 6:7 shall I give my first-born as an offering for my transgression (compare חטאת 4).

APPENDIX C - BDB entry for חַטָּאת noun feminine

1 Samuel 14:38 (Genesis 4:7 no exception for רֹבֵץ is noun = crouching beast) sin, sin-offering, ׳ח Genesis 4:7 124t.; לְחַטָּ֯ת Numbers 15:24 (text error for. לחטאת), לְחַטַּאת Zechariah 13:1 (but read לְחַטָּאת StaZAW i. 35); construct חַטַּאת Exodus 30:10 19t.; suffix חַטָּאתִי Genesis 31:36 16t.; חַטָּאתֹיו֯ 1 Kings 16:26, חַטַּאתְכֶם Exodus 32:30 3t.; etc., + 52 t. suffix; plural חַטָּאוֺת 2 Kings 12:17 3t.; construct חַטּאֹות Psalm 25:7 17t.; חַטּאֹת Numbers 5:6 6t.; suffix חַטּאֹותָ֑י Psalm 25:18; חַטּאֹתָו֯ Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 33:16, etc., + 40 t. suffix

1 sin:

a. against man Genesis 31:36; Genesis 50:17 (E), Numbers 12:11 (J) 1 Samuel 20:1; אדם ׳ח sins against man Numbers 5:6 (P). Elsewhere

b. against God Leviticus 4:14,23,28 (P), 1 Samuel 2:17; 1 Samuel 14:38; 1 Kings 16:13 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 21:16; 2 Kings 21:17; 2Chron 33:19; Isaiah 3:9; Isaiah 30:1; Isaiah 58:1; Isaiah 59:2; Isaiah 59:12; Isaiah 16:10; Isaiah 16:18; Isaiah 30:14; Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 50:20; Lamentations 4:6,22; Ezekiel 16:51; Ezekiel 18:14; Ezekiel 21:29; Ezekiel 33:10,16; Amos 5:12 (We Kl. Proph. reads חטאיכם), as Isaiah 1:18 — see חֵטא — on accusative of masculine עצומים), Micah 1:13; Micah 3:8; Psalm 32:5; Psalm 51:5; Psalm 59:4; Proverbs 5:22; Proverbs 13:6; Proverbs 14:34; Proverbs 21:4; Proverbs 24:9; Job 13:23; Job 14:23; Daniel 9:20 (twice in verse); נעורי ׳ח sins of my youth Psalm 25:7; נפשׁי ׳פרי בטני ח Micah 6:7 fruit of my body (my child as an offering) for the sin of myself; sin of divination 1 Samuel 15:23; of the mouth Psalm 59:13; עמי יאכלו ׳ח Hosea 4:8 the sin of my people they eat (gain their daily food by means of it, compare We; ᵑ7 Hi Or and others sin-offering, but this not elsewhere in early prophets, and "" עָוֺן against it, see WeProl. 3. 76); לפתח חטאת רבץ Genesis 4:7 (J) at the door (of Cain) sin is a crouching beast; sin of the people is embodied in the golden calf Deuteronomy 9:21; and the high places of Beath Aven Hosea 10:8; with בְּ on the ground of sin Nehemiah 9:37; for sin Micah 1:5; 2 Kings 24:3; Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 15:13; Jeremiah 17:3; Ezekiel 16:52; with or by sin 1 Kings 14:22; 1 Kings 16:2; Isaiah 43:24; ׳הלך בח walk in sin 1 Kings 15:3,26,34; 1 Kings 16:19,26,31; 2 Kings 17:22; ׳דבק בח cleave unto sin 2 Kings 3:3; with עַל on account of sin Deuteronomy 9:18; 1 Kings 15:30; 1 Kings 16:19; Micah 6:13; for sin Leviticus 4:3,28,35; Leviticus 5:6,13 (P) Leviticus 19:22; Leviticus 26:18,24,28 (H); ׳יסף על ח add unto sin 1 Samuel 12:19; 2Chronicles 28:13; Isaiah 30:1; Job 34:37; with כְּ according to sin Leviticus 26:21; with לְ to or for sin Leviticus 16:16,21; Deuteronomy 19:15; 1 Kings 12:30; 1 Kings 13:34; Proverbs 10:16; Zechariah 13:1; with מִן because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34 (P), Leviticus 19:22 (H), Lamentations 4:13; more than sin Job 35:3; טָהַרְתִּי מֵחַטָּאתִי I am clean from my sin Proverbs 20:9; ׳מגני ח because of sin Psalm 38:4; ׳בגלל ח because of sin 1 Kings 14:16; הלך ׳אחר ח walk after sin 2 Kings 13:2.

c. men should return from sin שׁוּב מִן 1 Kings 8:35 2Chronicles 6:26; Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 33:14; depart from it סוּר מֵעַל 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 15:18; סוּר מן 2 Kings 13:6,11; 2 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 15:9,24,28; be concerned about דאג מן Psalm 38:19; confess ׳הִתְוַדָּה ח Numbers 5:7 (P); ׳התודה על ה Nehemiah 1:6; Nehemiah 9:2.

d. God deals with sin: (1) he visits punishment upon it (על) פקד Exodus 32:34 (JE) Hosea 8:13; Hosea 9:9; Jeremiah 14:10; inquires after it דרשׁ ל Job 10:6; watches over it שׁמר על Job 14:16; hoards it up Hosea 13:12; -2by forgiveness: ׳נשׂא ה Exodus 10:17; Exodus 32:32 (JE), 1 Samuel 15:25; ׳נשׂא עון ח Psalm 32:5; ׳נשׂא לח Joshua 24:19 (E), Psalm 25:18; pardon ׳סלח לח Exodus 34:9 (JE) 1 Kings 8:34,36; 2Chronicles 6:25,27; 7:14; Jeremiah 36:3; removal הסר Isaiah 27:9; העביר 2 Samuel 12:13; casting into the depths of the sea Micah 7:19; -3by covering over, making atonement for חַטָּֽאתְךָ תְּכֻמָּ֑ר Isaiah 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over; actively, ׳כמּר עַל ח Psalm 79:9; ׳כסּה ח Psalm 85:3 (compare כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה Psalm 32:1); ׳לְהָתֵם ח (Qr) make an end of sins Daniel 9:24; -4by blotting out ׳מחה ח Isaiah 44:22; Jeremiah 18:23; Psalm 109:14; Nehemiah 3:37; cleanse from sin ׳טַהֲרֵנִי מח Psalm 51:4; ׳מקוֺר לח a fountain for sin Zechariah 13:1; -5by not remembering it ׳לא זכר ח Isaiah 43:25; לא זכר ׳לח Jeremiah 31:34; אַלתֵּֿפֶן אֶלחַֿטָאתוֺ Deuteronomy 9:27 look not unto his sin.

e. atonement may be secured for, ׳כמּר בעד ח Exodus 32:30 (J E; Moses, by his intercession).

f. according to P (H) the priest is to make atonement for a person (כמּר על) by sin-offering or trespass-offering; ׳מח because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34; ׳על ח Leviticus 4:35; Leviticus 5:13 (all P), Leviticus 19:22 (H; see Wecompare, 59 = JBTh xxii, 427), so that the man is clean from sin ׳טהר מח Leviticus 16:30.

2 condition of sin, guilt of sin Genesis 18:20; Numbers 16:26; Numbers 32:23 (J), Ezekiel 3:20; Ezekiel 18:24, יְהוּדָה חֲרוּשָׁה עַללֿוּחַ לִבָּם ׳ח וּלְקַרְנוֺת מִוְבְּחוֺתֵיכֶם the sin (guilt) of Judah is graven upon the table of their hear, and upon the horns of your altars Jeremiah 17:1.

3 punishment for sin: כָלהַֿגּוֺיִם ׳מִצְרָ֑יִם וח ׳זֹאת תִּהְיֶה ח Zechariah 14:19 this will be the punishment for sin of Egypt and the punishment for sin of all nations (the plague with which Yahweh will smite them).

4 sin-offering: one of the kinds of offerings of P, Leviticus 7:37; first in the history 2 Kings 12:17 (reign of Jehoash), where חטּאת of money given to priests; elsewhere only in Chronicles: 2 Chronicles 29:21,23,24 Hezekiah had made a ׳ח of 7 צְפִירֵי עִזִּים at purification of temple; Ezra 8:35; 12צְפִירֵי ׳ח were offered; Nehemiah 10:34 ׳ח "" עולות; — in these no evidence of special ritual. Sin-offering elsewhere only in codes of H Ezekiel and P. — On Hosea 4:8 see

1 above In H, Leviticus 23:19 a שׂעיר עזים, for feast of weeks. In Ezekiel ׳ח in General "" other sacrifices, Ezekiel 40:39; Ezekiel 45:17,25; Ezekiel 46:20; and priests eat them Ezekiel 42:13; Ezekiel 44:29. At dedication of altar, the blood of a young bullock was to be applied to horns of altar, the corners of its settle and its border, the bullock itself burnt without the sanctuary; for each of the 7 days following a שׂעיר עזים was to be offered Ezekiel 43:19,21,22,25. On first day of first month a young bullock was to offered to cleanse the sanctuary: its blood put on the door posts of the house and of the gate of the inner court an on the four corners of the settle of the altar; also on the seventh day (ᵐ5 first day of seventh month) Ezekiel 45:17,19 (compare Ezekiel 45:18; Ezekiel 45:20). On 14th day of first month the prince was to offer a bullock for himself and the people and on each of the 7 days of the Passover week a שׂעיר עזים Ezekiel 45:22,23. When a priest entered the sanctuary to minister after his cleaning he was to offer his sin-offering Ezekiel 44:27. P gives several grades:

a. a ruler should offer a he-goat Leviticus 4:24,25; Numbers 7:16,22,28,34,40,46,52,58,64,70,76,82,87; an ordinary person a she-goat Leviticus 4:29 (compare Leviticus 4:28) Leviticus 5:6; Numbers 15:27, ewe lamb Leviticus 4:32,33 (twice in verse); Leviticus 4:34; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:14,16, a turtle dove or young pigeon Leviticus 5:7,8,9 (twice in verse); Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:22,31; Leviticus 15:15,30; Numbers 6:11, or one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour Leviticus 5:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 5:12; according to ability of the person, and nature of offence. The victim was brought unto the tent of meeting, the hands of the offerer laid on its head, it was slaughtered by the offerer, the priest took some of the blood and put it on horns of altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the blood he poured out at the base of it, to cover over the sin, or cleanse the altar from the sin defiling it. All the fat pieces (compare Leviticus 4:22,35) and a handful of the flour (compare Leviticus 5:12) were burned on altar. The rest of the flesh and the flour were eaten by priests in court of Holy place Leviticus 5:13; Leviticus 6:10; Leviticus 6:18 (twice in verse); Leviticus 6:23 (compare Leviticus 6:11; Leviticus 6:19), Leviticus 7:7; Leviticus 10:16,17,19 (twice in verse); Leviticus 14:13; Numbers 18:9.

b. a bullock was offered for priests Exodus 29:14,36; Leviticus 4:3,8,20; Leviticus 8:2,14 (twice in verse); Leviticus 9:2,7,8,10; for Levites at their installation Numbers 8:8,12 and for whole congregation Leviticus 4:14,21; but usually offering for congregation was he-goat Numbers 15:24,25, especially at dedication of altar Leviticus 9:3,15,22. and in ritual of feasts Numbers 28:15,22,30; Numbers 29:5,11,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,38. Before consecration of the tabernacle the blood went to altar of burnt-offering (Leviticus 9:9), but subsequently some of it was sprinkled seven times before the vail and some of it put on horns of altar of incense to cleanse this higher altar; the fast pieces were burned on altar of burnt-offering, and the rest of the victim burned without the camp (Leviticus 4:3-21; Leviticus 6:23; Leviticus 8:16,17; Leviticus 9:10,11).

c. on day of atonement, sin-offering for high priest was a bullock Leviticus 16:3,6; and for congregation two he-goats, one לַעֲזָאזֵל (see עזאזל) Leviticus 16:5 (compare Leviticus 16:8; Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:20; Leviticus 16:22), the other for sacrifice ליהוה Leviticus 16:9 (compare Leviticus 16:8). Some of the blood of Aaron's bullock was first taken into innermost sanctuary and sprinkled on the כפרת and seven times before it; so also blood of the he-goat Leviticus 16:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 16:15 (compare Leviticus 16:12-14; Leviticus 16:16; Leviticus 16:17) to cleanse highest altar: then the blood of the two victims was applied to lower altars as in a and b and so sin was covered over at the three altars Exodus 30:10 (compare Leviticus 16:16-19). The fat pieces went to altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the victims was burnt without the camp Leviticus 16:25,27 (twice in verse). (Sins which might be covered over were limited to those committed בשׁגגה Leviticus 4:2,22,27; Numbers 15:27, לשׁגגה Numbers 15:24, minor offences Leviticus 5:1-6; and ceremonial uncleanness Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:13; Leviticus 15:15; Numbers 6:11,14.) — Pharses for sacrificing are: ׳עשׂה ח Leviticus 9:7,22; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:16; Ezekiel 45:17, ׳הקריב ח Leviticus 10:19; Ezekiel 44:27, ׳שׁחט ח Leviticus 14:13; Ezekiel 40:39.

5 purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness, all P: ׳ח ׳מֵ Numbers 8:7 water of purification from sin; הוּא ׳מֵי נִדָּה ח water of (cleansing from) impurity, it is a purification from sin Numbers 19:9; ׳עֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הח Numbers 19:17 ashes of the burning of the purification from sin (RV renders sin-offering; but there was no offering made, only water of purification was used). חַטָּאת noun feminine 1 Samuel 14:38 (Genesis 4:7 no exception for רֹבֵץ is noun = crouching beast) sin, sin-offering, ׳ח Genesis 4:7 124t.; לְחַטָּ֯ת Numbers 15:24 (text error for. לחטאת), לְחַטַּאת Zechariah 13:1 (but read לְחַטָּאת StaZAW i. 35); construct חַטַּאת Exodus 30:10 19t.; suffix חַטָּאתִי Genesis 31:36 16t.; חַטָּאתֹיו֯ 1 Kings 16:26, חַטַּאתְכֶם Exodus 32:30 3t.; etc., + 52 t. suffix; plural חַטָּאוֺת 2 Kings 12:17 3t.; construct חַטּאֹות Psalm 25:7 17t.; חַטּאֹת Numbers 5:6 6t.; suffix חַטּאֹותָ֑י Psalm 25:18; חַטּאֹתָו֯ Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 33:16, etc., + 40 t. suffix; — 1 sin:

a. against man Genesis 31:36; Genesis 50:17 (E), Numbers 12:11 (J) 1 Samuel 20:1; אדם ׳ח sins against man Numbers 5:6 (P). Elsewhere

b. against God Leviticus 4:14,23,28 (P), 1 Samuel 2:17; 1 Samuel 14:38; 1 Kings 16:13 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 21:16; 2 Kings 21:17; 2Chron 33:19; Isaiah 3:9; Isaiah 30:1; Isaiah 58:1; Isaiah 59:2; Isaiah 59:12; Isaiah 16:10; Isaiah 16:18; Isaiah 30:14; Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 50:20; Lamentations 4:6,22; Ezekiel 16:51; Ezekiel 18:14; Ezekiel 21:29; Ezekiel 33:10,16; Amos 5:12 (We Kl. Proph. reads חטאיכם), as Isaiah 1:18 — see חֵטא — on accusative of masculine עצומים), Micah 1:13; Micah 3:8; Psalm 32:5; Psalm 51:5; Psalm 59:4; Proverbs 5:22; Proverbs 13:6; Proverbs 14:34; Proverbs 21:4; Proverbs 24:9; Job 13:23; Job 14:23; Daniel 9:20 (twice in verse); נעורי ׳ח sins of my youth Psalm 25:7; נפשׁי ׳פרי בטני ח Micah 6:7 fruit of my body (my child as an offering) for the sin of myself; sin of divination 1 Samuel 15:23; of the mouth Psalm 59:13; עמי יאכלו ׳ח Hosea 4:8 the sin of my people they eat (gain their daily food by means of it, compare We; ᵑ7 Hi Or and others sin-offering, but this not elsewhere in early prophets, and "" עָוֺן against it, see WeProl. 3. 76); לפתח חטאת רבץ Genesis 4:7 (J) at the door (of Cain) sin is a crouching beast; sin of the people is embodied in the golden calf Deuteronomy 9:21; and the high places of Beath Aven Hosea 10:8; with בְּ on the ground of sin Nehemiah 9:37; for sin Micah 1:5; 2 Kings 24:3; Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 15:13; Jeremiah 17:3; Ezekiel 16:52; with or by sin 1 Kings 14:22; 1 Kings 16:2; Isaiah 43:24; ׳הלך בח walk in sin 1 Kings 15:3,26,34; 1 Kings 16:19,26,31; 2 Kings 17:22; ׳דבק בח cleave unto sin 2 Kings 3:3; with עַל on account of sin Deuteronomy 9:18; 1 Kings 15:30; 1 Kings 16:19; Micah 6:13; for sin Leviticus 4:3,28,35; Leviticus 5:6,13 (P) Leviticus 19:22; Leviticus 26:18,24,28 (H); ׳יסף על ח add unto sin 1 Samuel 12:19; 2Chronicles 28:13; Isaiah 30:1; Job 34:37; with כְּ according to sin Leviticus 26:21; with לְ to or for sin Leviticus 16:16,21; Deuteronomy 19:15; 1 Kings 12:30; 1 Kings 13:34; Proverbs 10:16; Zechariah 13:1; with מִן because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34 (P), Leviticus 19:22 (H), Lamentations 4:13; more than sin Job 35:3; טָהַרְתִּי מֵחַטָּאתִי I am clean from my sin Proverbs 20:9; ׳מגני ח because of sin Psalm 38:4; ׳בגלל ח because of sin 1 Kings 14:16; הלך ׳אחר ח walk after sin 2 Kings 13:2.

c. men should return from sin שׁוּב מִן 1 Kings 8:35 2Chronicles 6:26; Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 33:14; depart from it סוּר מֵעַל 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 15:18; סוּר מן 2 Kings 13:6,11; 2 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 15:9,24,28; be concerned about דאג מן Psalm 38:19; confess ׳הִתְוַדָּה ח Numbers 5:7 (P); ׳התודה על ה Nehemiah 1:6; Nehemiah 9:2.

d. God deals with sin: (1) he visits punishment upon it (על) פקד Exodus 32:34 (JE) Hosea 8:13; Hosea 9:9; Jeremiah 14:10; inquires after it דרשׁ ל Job 10:6; watches over it שׁמר על Job 14:16; hoards it up Hosea 13:12; -2by forgiveness: ׳נשׂא ה Exodus 10:17; Exodus 32:32 (JE), 1 Samuel 15:25; ׳נשׂא עון ח Psalm 32:5; ׳נשׂא לח Joshua 24:19 (E), Psalm 25:18; pardon ׳סלח לח Exodus 34:9 (JE) 1 Kings 8:34,36; 2Chronicles 6:25,27; 7:14; Jeremiah 36:3; removal הסר Isaiah 27:9; העביר 2 Samuel 12:13; casting into the depths of the sea Micah 7:19; -3by covering over, making atonement for חַטָּֽאתְךָ תְּכֻמָּ֑ר Isaiah 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over; actively, ׳כמּר עַל ח Psalm 79:9; ׳כסּה ח Psalm 85:3 (compare כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה Psalm 32:1); ׳לְהָתֵם ח (Qr) make an end of sins Daniel 9:24; -4by blotting out ׳מחה ח Isaiah 44:22; Jeremiah 18:23; Psalm 109:14; Nehemiah 3:37; cleanse from sin ׳טַהֲרֵנִי מח Psalm 51:4; ׳מקוֺר לח a fountain for sin Zechariah 13:1; -5by not remembering it ׳לא זכר ח Isaiah 43:25; לא זכר ׳לח Jeremiah 31:34; אַלתֵּֿפֶן אֶלחַֿטָאתוֺ Deuteronomy 9:27 look not unto his sin.

e. atonement may be secured for, ׳כמּר בעד ח Exodus 32:30 (J E; Moses, by his intercession).

f. according to P (H) the priest is to make atonement for a person (כמּר על) by sin-offering or trespass-offering; ׳מח because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34; ׳על ח Leviticus 4:35; Leviticus 5:13 (all P), Leviticus 19:22 (H; see Wecompare, 59 = JBTh xxii, 427), so that the man is clean from sin ׳טהר מח Leviticus 16:30.

2 condition of sin, guilt of sin Genesis 18:20; Numbers 16:26; Numbers 32:23 (J), Ezekiel 3:20; Ezekiel 18:24, יְהוּדָה חֲרוּשָׁה עַללֿוּחַ לִבָּם ׳ח וּלְקַרְנוֺת מִוְבְּחוֺתֵיכֶם the sin (guilt) of Judah is graven upon the table of their hear, and upon the horns of your altars Jeremiah 17:1.

3 punishment for sin: כָלהַֿגּוֺיִם ׳מִצְרָ֑יִם וח ׳זֹאת תִּהְיֶה ח Zechariah 14:19 this will be the punishment for sin of Egypt and the punishment for sin of all nations (the plague with which Yahweh will smite them).

4 sin-offering: one of the kinds of offerings of P, Leviticus 7:37; first in the history 2 Kings 12:17 (reign of Jehoash), where חטּאת of money given to priests; elsewhere only in Chronicles: 2 Chronicles 29:21,23,24 Hezekiah had made a ׳ח of 7 צְפִירֵי עִזִּים at purification of temple; Ezra 8:35; 12צְפִירֵי ׳ח were offered; Nehemiah 10:34 ׳ח "" עולות; — in these no evidence of special ritual. Sin-offering elsewhere only in codes of H Ezekiel and P. — On Hosea 4:8 see

1 above In H, Leviticus 23:19 a שׂעיר עזים, for feast of weeks. In Ezekiel ׳ח in General "" other sacrifices, Ezekiel 40:39; Ezekiel 45:17,25; Ezekiel 46:20; and priests eat them Ezekiel 42:13; Ezekiel 44:29. At dedication of altar, the blood of a young bullock was to be applied to horns of altar, the corners of its settle and its border, the bullock itself burnt without the sanctuary; for each of the 7 days following a שׂעיר עזים was to be offered Ezekiel 43:19,21,22,25. On first day of first month a young bullock was to offered to cleanse the sanctuary: its blood put on the door posts of the house and of the gate of the inner court an on the four corners of the settle of the altar; also on the seventh day (ᵐ5 first day of seventh month) Ezekiel 45:17,19 (compare Ezekiel 45:18; Ezekiel 45:20). On 14th day of first month the prince was to offer a bullock for himself and the people and on each of the 7 days of the Passover week a שׂעיר עזים Ezekiel 45:22,23. When a priest entered the sanctuary to minister after his cleaning he was to offer his sin-offering Ezekiel 44:27. P gives several grades:

a. a ruler should offer a he-goat Leviticus 4:24,25; Numbers 7:16,22,28,34,40,46,52,58,64,70,76,82,87; an ordinary person a she-goat Leviticus 4:29 (compare Leviticus 4:28) Leviticus 5:6; Numbers 15:27, ewe lamb Leviticus 4:32,33 (twice in verse); Leviticus 4:34; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:14,16, a turtle dove or young pigeon Leviticus 5:7,8,9 (twice in verse); Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:22,31; Leviticus 15:15,30; Numbers 6:11, or one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour Leviticus 5:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 5:12; according to ability of the person, and nature of offence. The victim was brought unto the tent of meeting, the hands of the offerer laid on its head, it was slaughtered by the offerer, the priest took some of the blood and put it on horns of altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the blood he poured out at the base of it, to cover over the sin, or cleanse the altar from the sin defiling it. All the fat pieces (compare Leviticus 4:22,35) and a handful of the flour (compare Leviticus 5:12) were burned on altar. The rest of the flesh and the flour were eaten by priests in court of Holy place Leviticus 5:13; Leviticus 6:10; Leviticus 6:18 (twice in verse); Leviticus 6:23 (compare Leviticus 6:11; Leviticus 6:19), Leviticus 7:7; Leviticus 10:16,17,19 (twice in verse); Leviticus 14:13; Numbers 18:9.

b. a bullock was offered for priests Exodus 29:14,36; Leviticus 4:3,8,20; Leviticus 8:2,14 (twice in verse); Leviticus 9:2,7,8,10; for Levites at their installation Numbers 8:8,12 and for whole congregation Leviticus 4:14,21; but usually offering for congregation was he-goat Numbers 15:24,25, especially at dedication of altar Leviticus 9:3,15,22. and in ritual of feasts Numbers 28:15,22,30; Numbers 29:5,11,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,38. Before consecration of the tabernacle the blood went to altar of burnt-offering (Leviticus 9:9), but subsequently some of it was sprinkled seven times before the vail and some of it put on horns of altar of incense to cleanse this higher altar; the fast pieces were burned on altar of burnt-offering, and the rest of the victim burned without the camp (Leviticus 4:3-21; Leviticus 6:23; Leviticus 8:16,17; Leviticus 9:10,11).

c. on day of atonement, sin-offering for high priest was a bullock Leviticus 16:3,6; and for congregation two he-goats, one לַעֲזָאזֵל (see עזאזל) Leviticus 16:5 (compare Leviticus 16:8; Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:20; Leviticus 16:22), the other for sacrifice ליהוה Leviticus 16:9 (compare Leviticus 16:8). Some of the blood of Aaron's bullock was first taken into innermost sanctuary and sprinkled on the כפרת and seven times before it; so also blood of the he-goat Leviticus 16:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 16:15 (compare Leviticus 16:12-14; Leviticus 16:16; Leviticus 16:17) to cleanse highest altar: then the blood of the two victims was applied to lower altars as in a and b and so sin was covered over at the three altars Exodus 30:10 (compare Leviticus 16:16-19). The fat pieces went to altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the victims was burnt without the camp Leviticus 16:25,27 (twice in verse). (Sins which might be covered over were limited to those committed בשׁגגה Leviticus 4:2,22,27; Numbers 15:27, לשׁגגה Numbers 15:24, minor offences Leviticus 5:1-6; and ceremonial uncleanness Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:13; Leviticus 15:15; Numbers 6:11,14.) — Pharses for sacrificing are: ׳עשׂה ח Leviticus 9:7,22; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:16; Ezekiel 45:17, ׳הקריב ח Leviticus 10:19; Ezekiel 44:27, ׳שׁחט ח Leviticus 14:13; Ezekiel 40:39.

5 purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness, all P: ׳ח ׳מֵ Numbers 8:7 water of purification from sin; הוּא ׳מֵי נִדָּה ח water of (cleansing from) impurity, it is a purification from sin Numbers 19:9; ׳עֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הח Numbers 19:17 ashes of the burning of the purification from sin (RV renders sin-offering; but there was no offering made, only water of purification was used).

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  • ( Bible Project Explanatory video for sin: youtube.com/watch?v=aNOZ7ocLD74 ) ( Bible Project Explanatory video for transgression: youtube.com/watch?v=cq-r9FFN5ew ) Jul 12, 2022 at 8:43
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The ‘key’ to understanding the differences between transgressions and ‘sin’ is to keep it simple. And fortunately the Bible does this. Let’s step through these terms. First, what is ‘sin’ .... Biblically -

1 JOHN 5:17 All unrighteousness is sin

Simple. Next, let’s look at transgressions...

ROMANS 4:15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

Transgressions need Law. Why? So that the ‘transgressions’ can be judged. (And then punishment can be ‘legally’ enacted, I.e. judgement.)

But, all ‘sin’ is also a violation of that Law - the 10 commandments. But irrespective of whether ‘under’ Law, even if there is no Law, then that ‘sin’ although not a transgression, is still, nevertheless, unrighteousness.

1 JOHN 3:4 Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.

So, in summary - transgressions need the law. Sin doesn’t. Transgressions are ‘judged’ and held the person violating the Law is held to account for that violation. But, if there is no Law, then there there can be no judgement, and you can’t be held accountable.

But ‘sin’ is unrighteousness. And anything that is unrighteous is ‘unclean’ - irrespective of whether it is transgressing a Law or not - and a ‘righteous’ God expects righteousness.

ISAIAH 64:6 But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.

So irrespective of whether we transgress [i.e. whether or not there is a Law], our flesh needs to be cleansed from ‘sin’ (unrighteousness)

1 JOHN 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

And, as well, fortunately ‘man’ can now, via Jesus, be given that righteousness he needs for ‘life’.

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  • ( Bible Project Explanatory video for sin: youtube.com/watch?v=aNOZ7ocLD74 ) ( Bible Project Explanatory video for transgression: youtube.com/watch?v=cq-r9FFN5ew ) Jul 12, 2022 at 8:43

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