What does “all things” mean in Ephesians 1:11?
God through Paul wrote to the Ephesians that He [God] will gather all things in heaven and the things on earth in Christ. Then with reference to "the things in heaven," says "we have obtained an inheritance," meaning those chosen as heirs with Christ. Paul explains:
Ephesians 1:10-11 ESV
10 as a plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him,
things in heaven and things on earth. 11 In him we have obtained an
inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him
who works all things according to the counsel of his will,
1/ Unite all things in him, who? -- Jesus
2/ Unite all things in him. where.-- in heaven and earth.
3/ Predestined: God predestined a group of humans to be as heirs with Jesus in his heavenly Kingdom, but not the individuals in the group. Jesus says that those faithful to the end - death, will receive the crown of life.
Revelation 2:10 NASB
10 Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is
about to throw some of you into prison, so that you will be tested,
and you will have tribulation for ten days. [a]Be faithful until
death, and I will give you the crown of life.
4/ In him [Jesus] we have obtained an inheritance. What inheritance? Imperishable and reserved in heaven as joint-heirs with Christ: Paul writes:
Romans 8:15-17 NASB
15 For you have not received a spirit of slavery [a]leading to fear
again, but you have received [b]a spirit of adoption as sons and
daughters by which we cry out, “Abba! [c]Father!” 16 The Spirit
Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and
if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ if
indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him.
1 Corinthians 1:1-2 ESV
1 Paul, called by the will of God to be an apostle of Christ Jesus,
and our brother Sosthenes, 2 To the church of God that is in Corinth,
to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with
all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus
Christ, both their Lord and ours:
Similarly, Peter writes, those chosen will "obtain an inheritance which is imperishable, undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,"
1 Peter 1:3-4 NASB
3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who
according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a
living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4
to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable, undefiled, and will
not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,
"All things" in the context of the verse, those that "we have obtained an inheritance ", refers to those chosen by God [saints/holy people ]to be as heirs with Jesus in his heavenly Kingdom.