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From Nehemiah 5:8

"As far as possible, we have bought back our fellow Jews who were sold to the Gentiles. Now you are selling your own people, only for them to be sold back to us!"

Later, he states that he wasn't taking the usual payments given to the governor, in spite of quite extensive food requirements:

14 Moreover, from the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes, when I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, until his thirty-second year—twelve years—neither I nor my brothers ate the food allotted to the governor. 15 But the earlier governors—those preceding me—placed a heavy burden on the people and took forty shekels[a] of silver from them in addition to food and wine. Their assistants also lorded it over the people. But out of reverence for God I did not act like that... 17 Furthermore, a hundred and fifty Jews and officials ate at my table, as well as those who came to us from the surrounding nations. 18 Each day one ox, six choice sheep and some poultry(T) were prepared for me, and every ten days an abundant supply of wine of all kinds. In spite of all this, I never demanded the food allotted to the governor, because the demands were heavy on these people.

So, he purchased a large number of people out of slavery and provided large amounts of food on a regular basis for the nobles. How did he afford all of this when he was not taking the usual money given to the governors?

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Nehemiah 1:11c I was cupbearer to the king.

Nehemiah was a cupbearer to the king. That's a non-trivial job.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cup-bearer

A cup-bearer was historically an officer of high rank in royal courts, whose duty was to pour and serve the drinks at the royal table. On account of the constant fear of plots and intrigues (such as poisoning), a person must have been regarded as thoroughly trustworthy to hold the position. He would guard against poison in the king's cup, and was sometimes required to swallow some of the drink before serving it. His confidential relations with the king often gave him a position of great influence. The position of cup-bearer has been greatly valued and given only to a select few throughout history.

He got paid well.

Nehemiah 5:8a and said: "As far as possible, we have bought back our fellow Jews who were sold to the Gentiles.

Nehemiah was not alone in the purchae. The pronounce is "we". Also, the purchase was limited to their available resources. Then he took up another non-trivial position.

Nehemiah 5:14a Moreover, from the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes, when I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah

He received a handsome salary for being the governor of Judah.

Nehemiah 5:14b neither I nor my brothers ate the food allotted to the governor.

This was concerning the food allowance, not his regular monthly salary. When you have a high-ranking job, you receive all kinds of bonuses, perks, and benefits.

17 Furthermore, a hundred and fifty Jews and officials ate at my table, as well as those who came to us from the surrounding nations.

These were related to official business and covered by official expenses. Nehemiah wasn't declining all the perks and benefits associated with his job. His point is found in

18b I never demanded the food allotted to the governor, because the demands were heavy on these people.

That was it. This was the only perk he did not exercise because it placed a direct burden on the people on behalf of his personal food.

So, he purchased a large number of people out of slavery

The text does not say that.

and provided large amounts of food on a regular basis for the nobles.

These were regular official dinners.

How did he afford all of this when he was not taking the usual money given to the governors?

He was taking his regular monthly salary.

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