Granted, in both passages the Bible speaks about a group of rebellious people, against God’s plans.
In both cases the people involved try to get the God’s rules off their backs. In fact the people described in Genesis were not disposed to fulfill the command of God to spread (פוץ) themselves on the surface of the earth (11:4), only to come to nothing. In fact, God later, dispersed (פוץ) them, according His will (11:8).
Similarly, also the intent of the group described on Psa 2 was invalidated by the arm of Yahweh. In fact, the final result of the rebellious group – described in the verse 9 – is very grim: “Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel” (JPS).
Nevertheless, the two passages at issue do not seem to be linked in other ways.
(1) Psa 2:2 refers to the “Anointed” as a target of the nations hatred. In Gen 11 story there was no “Anointed” to be the butt of the rebellious group described there.
(2) The same Psalm’s verse speaks about the “kings of the earth” and “the rulers”, but according the Bible history the first rulers really existed in a subsequent epoch (see please, Gen 10:8-10 that describes events subsequent the events described in Gen 11:1-9; in fact Gen 10:10 refers to the period when the languages are yet spoken, ergo in a period subsequent the Tower of Babel story).
On the other hand, according the Bible hermeneutics (not only Genesis’) this passage of Psalms was a prophetic message about the Messiah.
Read this fact in Act 4:25-27 (ESV):
“Who, by the mouth of thy servant David hast said, ‘who through the mouth of our father David, your servant, said by the Holy Spirit, “‘Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and against his Anointed’— for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel […]”
There the apostles established a parallel between the “kings of the earth” (ארץ מלכי) with “Herod”, “Pontius Pilate”, etc., that joined their forces “against His (God’s) Anointed” (Psa 2:2). So, the latter (the Anointed) was Jesus of Nazareth (“the holy child” of God).
Instead to feel affection to the Son of God (the Hebrew text has “Kiss the son” [Psa 2:12]) they co-operated to sweep away his presence and mention.
This messianic prophecy pointed that some people – in Jesus time – that exercised power (representatives of some nations) would have opposed to any God’s limitations to their selfishly and wicked desires and purposes, represented by the ‘bonds’ and the ‘ropes’ we read in Psa 2:3.
The earthly adversaries of the Messiah, Herod, Pilate, and the Jewish religious leaders were not able to nullify the divine mission that Jesus came to perform on our planet. Their failure was well prophesied. In fact, speaking about their purpose, the psalmist used the term ריק, ‘an empty thing’. The Hebrew verbal root indicates that their lacking-content plans would have rendered vain, useless, their efforts to obstruct the progress of the ‘fire’ of the Gospel (Luk 12:49). Since the mission of Christ was God ordered, was inevitable that that mission did must fulfill itself, just as Yahweh God spake (through the psalmist).
A lesson for us. Let us avoid to imitate those rebels of old, knowing that all commands God give us are – once and for all – for our profit (Isa 48:17-18). Then again, one of the purposes because Jesus came on the earth was to save us, from the grasps of sin and death. So, is only right – for our part – to appreciate this God’s provision for our sake. We can do this ‘kissing’ His Son (Psa 2:12), namely, accepting the redeeming value of Jesus’ sacrifice, and giving to God a demonstration of this our belief following the steps of the Master.
Very interestingly, the Septuagint, on Psa 2:3, translated a little different the second term of the couple of Hebrew terms on Psa 2:3, מוסר [‘bonds’], and עבת [‘ropes’]. In fact LXX used the Greek word ζυγον ‘yoke’ instead of the term ‘ropes’ (MT’s). This fact remind us the word of Lord Jesus, when said: “Take my yoke [ζυγον] upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.” (Mat 11:29-30, ESV)
So, instead to shake off His yoke from our shoulders, is profitable for us accept it, following His own pattern, doing so we may find rest for our souls!
I hope these information will be useful to you.