Saint Martha of Bethany's apparently casual use of "the Last Day" would most certainly have been through formation/reception in her catechetical experience of dominant (at least in Jerusalem/Judea) rabbinical Pharisaism. What they and she meant by this doctrine in the context of first century CE Jewish "confessional eschatology" was that the Messiah would come eventually to establish his Kingdom congruent with the "resurrection of the dead", many having experienced Gehinnom/purgatory (posthumous purgation/perfection) in preparation. All but those who denied the possibility of bodily resurrection, and possibly the most heinous sinners (cf. Johannine "mortal sin"), qualified for the Resurrection.
In opposition were the contemporaneous "sola scriptura" Sadducees (Moses/Pentateuch alone) and their heirs of today:
(a) the "protestant" Karaites (i.e.,Law/Torah sans the Prophets/Nevi'im, the Writings/Ketuvim and Oral Tradition/Talmud) and
(b) "modernist" Reformed Judaism (viz, religious belief must comply with conventional "science"). Therefore, Martha's confession exemplifies Pharisaic Judaism as the hermeneutical foundation of today's Orthodox/Chassidic Judaism and Orthodox/Catholic Christianity.
A good overview of the eschatology of Rabbinical Judaism is found in
Baruch BRODY, "Jewish Reflections on the Resurrection of the Dead" (The Torah U-Madda Journal, Vol. 17 [2016-17]), pp. 93-122. See also Maimonides' "Thirteen Fundamental Articles of Jewish faith" (Resurrection is no. 13):
In the messianic epoch the body will once again rise in the resurrection and will exist for ever and ever.
The belief in the resurrection of the dead forms a basic foundation of the Jewish faith.
Thanks to this belief, one knows that the physical body, to which one dedicates one's entire effort in Torah and mitzvot, and for whose elevation one toils eighty or ninety years, is an eternal entity.
One's struggle on behalf of the body will never be in vein.
The body dies temporarily, only to reawaken to everlasting eternal life.
As the famous principle of Talmudic law teaches, "Any change that reverts back to its original condition is not considered to be a change at all" (Bava Kamma 67a; Sukkah 30b).
Thus, the ongoing battle to purify, refine, and uplift the body and all of material existence has an eternal result.