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Deuteronomy 6:4-5 (ESV):

4 “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. 5 You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.

Psalms 110:1 (ESV):

The LORD says to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.”

Deuteronomy 6:4-5 talks about a single LORD, but then Psalms 110:1 reveals that there is a LORD and a Lord (two Lords). Is there only one Lord or two Lords? Or should we understand that there is only one uppercase LORD, and that the other Lord is not LORD?

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  • David certainly had two Lords. And David was able to distinguish between them. And David heard when One spoke to Another. And, at the time, neither was (yet) manifest. (Up-voted +1.) – Nigel J Apr 12 at 0:23
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Essentially, Jesus asked the same question in Matthew 22:44, Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42–43 and successfully confounded the Jewish leaders! [For completeness, the two words in Ps 110:1 for Lord are different in the Hebrew which the English attempts to distinguish by the different capitalization; LORD = יְהוָֹה = YHWH; Lord = אָדוֹן = adon.]

The assertions in Deut 6:4 and Ps 110:1 are simultaneously both correct for the following two basic reasons:

  1. The Hebrew word "one" in Deut 6:4 is אֶחָד (echad) here expresses essential UNITY not ONENESS. Exactly the same word is used in Gen 2:24 -

That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh.

  1. The idea that the LORD God is more than one person is explicitly expressed in other places in the OT such as:
  • Zech 2:6-12 – the LORD (= YHWH) claims three times that He has been sent by the LORD.
  • Isa 48:11-16 – again, the LORD has been sent by the LORD.
  • Isa 63:7-16 – the LORD (described as a Father) sends His divine servant (the angel of His presence) and His Holy Spirit who is grieved (compare Ps 78:40).
  • Ex 23:20 – the angel of the LORD’s presence has the power to forgive sin (but will not). This and the previous reference clearly make the angel of the presence the pre-incarnate Jesus.
  • Hos 1:7 – the LORD saves by the LORD their God.
  • Prov 30:1-4 – the Son of God is as unfathomable as God Himself.
  • Psalm 110 – “The LORD says to my Lord” – Jesus asked about this Psalm on how someone could be both Son and Lord of David – see Matt 22:44, Mark 12:36, Luke 20:42, Acts 2:34.
  • Ps 45 (quoted by Heb 1) talks about the “Son” being God in addition to God the Father.
  • Gen 1:1, 2, 26, 11:6, 7 – God refers to Himself in the plural pronoun.

While any one of these might be disputed, together they create a pattern difficult to ignore that is greatly expanded in the NT as we understand. In the NT we have the best exposition of the nature of God in 1 John 4:8, 16, "God is love". This simple assertion means that God is not a single entity but must be more than one person else the other-centeredness of agapao love is meaningless here.

CONCLUSION

Ps 110 and other places consistently talk about the unity of God and that exists between the members of the Godhead.

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  • Jesus asked the same question in Matthew 22:37, Mark 12:30, and Luke 10:27 - what question is being asked in these verses? Here Jesus is talking about the greatest commandment, not asking a question, or am I missing something? (I'm still reading the answer by the way) – Spirit Realm Investigator Apr 12 at 0:31
  • @SpiritRealmInvestigator - my humble apologies - I listed the wrong verses in the first paragraph - I have now corrected them. – Dottard Apr 12 at 2:30
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Deuteronomy 6 verses 4-5 both reference HaShem (יְהֹוָ֥ה) declaring The-Name of our God as a proclamation of faith.

Devarim 6:4 declares HaShem "The-Name" of The God of .

Hear, Yisrael : YHVH is our God; YHVH is one. (שְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֶחָֽד)

Devarim 6:5

And you shall love YHVH your God, with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your means. (וְאָ֣הַבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֥ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶֽךָ)

https://www.sefaria.org/Deuteronomy.6?lang=bi&aliyot=0


While Psalms 110 is a song by David celebrating his lineage as a descendant of Avraham. In Psalm 110 verse 1, David alludes to Avraham with the same declaration used in [Genesis 24:27] - "YHVH [the] God of my-lord [Avraham]" ( יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י אַבְרָהָ֔ם ), and [Genesis 24:48] - "YHVH [the] God of my-lord [Avraham]" (יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י אַבְרָהָ֔ם) in fulfillment of God's promise to Avraham in Genesis 22:17.

Tehillim 110:1

Of David - A psalm : YHVH spoke to-my lord, “Sit at My right hand while I make your enemies your footstool.” (לְדָוִ֗ד מִ֫זְמ֥וֹר נְאֻ֤ם יְהוָ֨ה לַֽאדֹנִ֗י שֵׁ֥ב לִֽימִינִ֑י עַד־אָשִׁ֥ית אֹ֝יְבֶ֗יךָ הֲדֹ֣ם לְרַגְלֶֽיךָ)

**Psalm 110 verses 2-7 are David's celebration of God's established kingdom in צִּיּ֑וֹן Zion fulfilling the promises declared to his lord Avraham. David alludes mostly to victorious moments of Avraham's life from Genesis 14:14-20 when blessed by Melchizedek (מַלְכִּי־צֶ֙דֶק֙). **

https://www.sefaria.org/Psalms.110.1?lang=bi&with=Rashi&lang2=en

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Much has been made of this Pslam in verse 1 using "Adoni", from the root "Adon", where it has been said that this word is never used for Almighty God, but only for men or angels. There are many examples in the Hebrew Old Testament, where "Adon", in the singular and plural, is indeed used for Almighty God. So why is there any reason to translate, "The Lord said to my lord", if not only for "theological"?. Here are some examples where "Adon" is used for Almighty God:

In Exodus 23:17, “the Lord (Adon) GOD”; Exodus 34:23, “before the Lord (Adon) GOD, the God of Israel”; Joshua 3:11, 13, “the Lord (Adon) of all the earth”; Psalm 97:5, “the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth”; Psalm 114:7 reads, “Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord (Adon)”; Isaiah 1:24, 3:1, 10:16, 10:33, 19:4, “the Lord (Adon), the LORD of hosts”; Isaiah 51:22, “Thus saith thy Lord (Adon) the LORD, and thy God”; Micah 4:13, “the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth”; Zechariah 4:14, “the Lord (Adon) of the whole earth”; 6:5, “the Lord (Adon) of all the earth”. In Deuteronomy 10:17, we read: “O give thanks to the Lord of lords”; and Psalm 136:3, it says: “For the LORD your God [is] God of gods, and Lord of lords”. In the Hebrew, where it says “Lord”, and “lord”, in its 4 uses, the word used is, “Adon”. They are in the masculine plural, literally, “master of masters”.

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