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In Jonah 1:9, I noticed that both words for the pronoun "I" are used, ʾănî and ʾānōkî.

וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְרִי אָנֹכִי וְאֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲנִי יָרֵא אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־הַיַּבָּשָֽׁה׃

Is there a proper usage or is it totally up to the author in the writings? Is there any significance over one or the other?

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Excellent question. Strong has good references: אני ,אנכי. Gesenius discusses this here at the beginning and in the footnotes.

It appears that אנכי is the more "original", and אני is a derived, localised form, based both on comparison to other languages, and the fact that אנכי is more common in earlier texts, and becomes less so in later texts.

Functionally, there seems to be no difference whatsoever.

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