Paul is distinguishing between two kinds of sins: conspicuous kind and hidden kind in
1 Timothy 5:24 (ESV)
The sins of some people are conspicuous, going before them to judgment, but the sins of others appear later.
The operative word is judgment, G2920, κρίσις, krisis. It can mean judgment by men or God. It is often used to refer to the final judgment as in
Just as people are destined to die once, and after that to face judgment,
Let's see the context in 1 Timothy 5:
17 Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in preaching and teaching. 18For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain,” and, “The laborer deserves his wages.” 19 Do not admit a charge against an elder except on the evidence of two or three witnesses. 20As for those who persist in sin, rebuke them in the presence of all, so that the rest may stand in fear. 21In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of the elect angels I charge you to keep these rules without prejudging, doing nothing from partiality. 22Do not be hasty in the laying on of hands, nor take part in the sins of others; keep yourself pure. 23(No longer drink only water, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments.) 24The sins of some people are conspicuous, going before them to judgment, but the sins of others appear later. 25So also good works are conspicuous, and even those that are not cannot remain hidden.
When the sins are conspicuous, you can judge and rebuke. They are easily recognized by men. There is no need to wait for the final judgment. When the sins are hidden, they cannot escape the final judgment by God. So the word judgment here is used to mean the final judgment by God. Conspicuous sins are recognized before the final judgment. Hidden sins are recognized at the final judgment.