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Hebrews 3:7-11 begins with:

Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, "..."

This seems like a quotation from some other part of the Bible. From Googling, I found that Psalm 95:6-11 has similar wording, but it's not exact, so I'm still not sure where this quotation is coming from. Where does this quote from the Holy Spirit come from? How did the author of Hebrews get it?

Also, why is this quote attributed to the Holy Spirit?

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The passage in Heb 3:7-11 quotes the Septuagint Passage of Ps 95:7-11. Here it is as translated from the standard Hebrew text:

For He is our God, and we are the people of His pasture, the sheep under His care. Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts as you did at Meribah, in the day at Massah in the wilderness, where your fathers tested and tried Me, though they had seen My work. For forty years I was angry with that generation, and I said, “They are a people whose hearts go astray, and they have not known My ways.” So I swore on oath in My anger, “They shall never enter My rest.”

However, Hebrews appears to more closely follow the Greek translation of this called the "Septuagint" (about 250 BC), which translates as follows (numbered as Ps 94 in the Greek)

For he is our God; and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. To-day, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, according to the day of irritation in the wilderness: where your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works. Forty years was I grieved with this generation, and said, They do always err in their heart, and they have not known my ways. So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.

Holy Spirit

The Bible writers understood that the ancient Hebrew prophets did not write the Bible by their own initiative but were inspired by the Holy Spirit. See 2 Peter 1:20, 21 -

Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture comes from one’s own interpretation. For no such prophecy was ever brought forth by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

We find the same declaration by Paul in 2 Tim 3:16 -

All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for instruction, for conviction, for correction, and for training in righteousness

[Note that the word in both Greek and Hebrew for "breath" is the same as "spirit".] Thus, the writer of Hebrews in Heb 3:7 is attributing the text of Psalms to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

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