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1 Thessalonians 2:3-4 (ESV):

3 For our appeal does not spring from error or impurity or any attempt to deceive, 4 but just as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak, not to please man, but to please God who tests our hearts.

What is the purpose of God's testing of our hearts if He has perfect foreknowledge of our actions? There are even those who claim that He has perfect foreknowledge of our counterfactual actions as well (a.k.a. middle knowledge). Is God gaining any kind of new information about us by testing us? How can we make sense of His testing?

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Is God gaining any kind of new information about us by testing us?

No, not in terms of information data. It does not add to God's 'knowledge base'. He knows everything already even without a formal knowledge base. The testing is done to increase our knowledge base so that we know what kind of characters we are. God tests us to perfect/mature us as in James 1:2

Consider it pure joy, my brothers and sisters, a whenever you face trials of many kinds, 3because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. 4Let perseverance finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.

Another purpose for testing is for rewards, Matthew 5:12

Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

The testings are for our benefits, not to increase God's knowledge.

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