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Romans 1:3:- “... concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, and declared to be the Son of God...”

Revelation 22:16:- “... I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star.”

My questions are how are these verses written in the original text and how can Jesus be the seed of David and yet the Root of David? In answering the question, please take into account what is written in Matthew 22:41-46.

41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, 42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David. 43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, 44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? 45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? 46 And no man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. [KJV]

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  • Physical פְּרִ֥י "Fruit" of דָּוִד David [Psalm 132:11] + Spiritual "Root" of Δαυίδ David [Revelation 22:16] – חִידָה Mar 2 at 19:00
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As a man, Jesus was a son of David.

As divine, Jesus was the root of David as prophesied in Isaiah 11:10

In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and his resting place will be glorious.

Jesus was the source of David's power. This is one of the mysteries/paradoxes of God-man. Jesus was both the root and offspring of David.

For this reason, David calls Jesus "my lord" in Psalm 110:1

The LORD says to my lord: "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet."

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In the NT Jesus is called two great titles:

  • The Son of God (Matt 4:3, 6, 8:29, 14:33, etc). As such, Jesus was the creator of heaven and earth, John 1:1-3, 10, Col 1:16, 17, Heb 1:2, 3, etc.
  • The Son of Man (Matt 8:20, 9:6, 10:23, 11:19, etc). As such Jesus was descended from King David and is the inheritor of David's throne, Matt 1:1, 20, 9:27, 12:23, 15:22, 20:30, 15, 21:9, 15, Mark 10:35, Luke 1:32, 33, 18:38, 39, John 1:49, Acts 13:32-37, Heb 1:8.

Thus, Jesus, as creator is the "root of David"; and by way of earthly parentage, Jesus is also the off-spring of David.

Benson summarises this in his comments on Rev 22:16 -

I, as God, am the root — And source; and, as man, the offspring of David

Gill says something similar -

I am the root and the offspring of David. The former of these is mentioned in the note; see Gill on Revelation 5:5; and the meaning of it is, either that Christ, as God, is David's Lord and head, from whom he had his being, both in a temporal and spiritual sense, and by whom he was supported and sustained; or that, as man, he sprung from the root of David, or descended from him; and so it falls in with the latter, which may be explanative of it, "the offspring of David"; that is, the soft of David, according to the flesh, a frequent name of the Messiah

It is this sense that Ps 110:1 encapsulates - Jesus, in pre-incarnate form was the Lord of David and was to be made "Lord of All" (Acts 10:36, Rom 10:12, Col 1:15) following Jesus defeat of all His enemies (Rev 17:14, 19:16).

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The biological descendant פְּרִ֥י "Fruit" of מֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד King David [Psalm 132:11] called my-anointed מְשִׁיחִֽי "Meshichi" by God [Psalm 132:17] also called זַרְעֲךָ֙ "Your-Seed" to David in [2 Samuel 7:12] was to become king over Yisrael forever. This Davidic Seed is associated with Yeshua (Jesus) of Nazareth in Matthew 1:1-16.

David דָּוִד was aware that God's Messiah אֲנִי֙ אֶהְיֶה־לּ֣וֹ לְאָ֔ב וְה֖וּא יִהְיֶה־לִּ֣י לְבֵ֑ן would be like a son to God, as prophesied to David by נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא Nathan the prophet in 2 Samuel 7:14.**

In Psalms / Tehillim 132:17, we read : "There - I will make a horn sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for My-Anointed one." ( שָׁ֤ם אַצְמִ֣יחַ קֶ֣רֶן לְדָוִ֑ד עָרַ֥כְתִּי נֵ֝֗ר לִמְשִׁיחִֽי ) : Meshich-i מְשִׁיחִֽי is "My-Messiah" in English.

  • My-Messiah, Meshichi מְשִׁיחִֽי is God's Anointed King of Yisrael who specifically will be a physical descendant of דָוִד David as stated in Psalm 132, verse 11: "YHVH has sworn to David in truth, from which He will never turn back, "Of the fruit of your body I shall seat upon your throne." ( נִשְׁבַּ֚ע יְהֹוָ֨ה | לְדָוִ֡ד אֱמֶת֘ לֹֽא־יָשׁ֪וּב מִ֫מֶּ֥נָּה מִפְּרִ֥י בִטְנְךָ֑ אָ֜שִׁ֗ית לְכִסֵּא־לָֽךְ )

  • As a Descendant of David [Matthew 1:1-16], Yeshua of Nazareth claimed his title to the throne of Yisrael.

In Matthew 1:1-16 [NASB], we read the statement that Yeshua (Jesus) of Nazareth descended from מֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד King David :

"The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham: 2 Abraham fathered Isaac, Isaac fathered Jacob, and Jacob fathered Judah and his brothers. 3 Judah fathered Perez and Zerah by Tamar, Perez fathered Hezron, and Hezron fathered [e]Ram. 4 Ram fathered Amminadab, Amminadab fathered Nahshon, and Nahshon fathered Salmon. 5 Salmon fathered Boaz by Rahab, Boaz fathered Obed by Ruth, and Obed fathered Jesse. 6 Jesse fathered David the king.

David fathered Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah. 7 Solomon fathered Rehoboam, Rehoboam fathered Abijah, and Abijah fathered Asa. 8 Asa fathered Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat fathered Joram, and Joram fathered Uzziah. 9 Uzziah fathered Jotham, Jotham fathered Ahaz, and Ahaz fathered Hezekiah. 10 Hezekiah fathered Manasseh, Manasseh fathered Amon, and Amon fathered Josiah. 11 Josiah fathered Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the deportation to Babylon.

12 After the deportation to Babylon: Jeconiah fathered Shealtiel, and Shealtiel fathered Zerubbabel. 13 Zerubbabel fathered Abihud, Abihud fathered Eliakim, and Eliakim fathered Azor. 14 Azor fathered Zadok, Zadok fathered Achim, and Achim fathered Eliud. 15 Eliud fathered Eleazar, Eleazar fathered Matthan, and Matthan fathered Jacob. 16 Jacob fathered Joseph the husband of Mary, by whom Jesus was born, who is called the Messiah."

  • This statement would validate Yeshua of Nazareth's right to claim kingship over Yisrael in the line of David's descendants as promised in Psalm 132.

Another promise is made regarding the anointed "Seed" of David in [2 Samuel 7:12-14] who will be like a son to God :

"I will raise up **your seed** that shall proceed from your body after you, and I will establish his kingdom." ( הֲקִימֹתִ֚י אֶֽת־**זַרְעֲךָ֙** אַחֲרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֵצֵ֖א מִמֵּעֶ֑יךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִ֖י אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּֽוֹ )
" He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. " ( ה֥וּא יִבְנֶה־בַּ֖יִת לִשְׁמִ֑י וְכֹנַנְתִּ֛י אֶת־כִּסֵּ֥א מַמְלַכְתּ֖וֹ עַד־עוֹלָֽם )
" I will be to him a father, and he shall be to Me a son; so that when he goes astray I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the sons of Adam. " ( אֲנִי֙ אֶהְיֶה־לּ֣וֹ לְאָ֔ב וְה֖וּא יִהְיֶה־לִּ֣י לְבֵ֑ן אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּהַ֣עֲו‍ֹת֔וֹ וְהֹֽכַחְתִּיו֙ בְּשֵׁ֣בֶט אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וּבְנִגְעֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם )

This is the biblical basis for Romans 1:3-4.

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    Paul asserts that Jesus is 'declared' the Son of God. Not 'like a son' but is The Son. – Nigel J Mar 2 at 20:26
  • Did Jesus go astray (the last scripture you quoted)? – Mike Borden Mar 23 at 11:53
  • @Mike Borden - "Did Jesus go astray" in regards to 2 Shmuel 7:14? Interesting question. - If you ask it in the "Christianity" group, scholars may say Jesus did not go astray in regards to the תּוֹרָה‎ Torah (based on Matthew 5:17) or (based on John 19:11) that הֲלָכָה‎ Halakhah has no power over Jesus. * Else If you ask it in the "Mi Yodeya" group, scholars may say read the Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a:[20] regarding the trial of Jesus the Nazarene. - Why not ask it in the "Hermeneutics" group, and see what other scholars say? – חִידָה Mar 23 at 13:17
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