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In Leviticus 17:3-4 (NASB)

3 What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp,

4 And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer an offering unto the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord; blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people:

Yet, in Deuteronomy 12:15-16 (NASB)

15 “However, you may slaughter and eat meat within any of your gates, whatever you desire, according to the blessing of the Lord your God which He has given you; the unclean and the clean alike may eat it, as the gazelle and the deer. 16 Only you shall not eat the blood; you are to pour it out on the ground like water.

In Leviticus 17 slaughter is not ok and in Deuteronomy 12 it is ok.

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Leviticus 17:3-4 is talking to the Israelites in the desert when they were all camping together and in close proximity to the tabernacle, or even later in the period of the Judges where the Israelites were still tribal and in close proximity to each other. They were then forbidden to eat meat unless they sacrificed the inedible parts to the Lord in the tabernacle. The impression is indeed, as the OP surmised, that any slaughter outside the temple is forbidden.

Deuteronomy 12:15-16 is focused on a later period, long after the Israelites settled in Canaan and spread out south and north of Jerusalem, at that point not everyone lived in close proximity to the temple, so Leviticus' ancient law wasn't anymore practical, so the law had to be revised somewhat, this is evident from v. 20-23:

When the Lord your God has enlarged your territory as he promised you, and you crave meat and say, “I would like some meat,” then you may eat as much of it as you want. 21If the place where the Lord your God chooses to put his Name is too far away from you, you may slaughter animals from the herds and flocks the Lord has given you, as I have commanded you, and in your own towns you may eat as much of them as you want. 22Eat them as you would gazelle or deer. Both the ceremonially unclean and the clean may eat

This is also the meaning of v. 15

However, you may slaughter and eat meat within any of your gates, whatever you desire, according to the blessing of the Lord your God which He has given you; the unclean and the clean alike may eat it, as the gazelle and the deer.

It's referring to the same period when the Israelites were spread out, the bible is saying here that the law in Leviticus is not applicable anymore once their territory has been enlarged. However, it still applies in the case when one is bringing it for sacrificial purposes; if it is intended as a sacrifice then the law of Leviticus is still in place and he must bring up to the Temple mount for sacrifice. This is enumerated in the verses before v. 15:

Be careful not to sacrifice your burnt offerings anywhere you please. 14Offer them only at the place the Lord will choose in one of your tribes, and there observe everything I command you. (v. 13-14)

This I believe is the proper reconciliation between Deut. and Lev. I believe that @Tonychan's answer is only partially correct here, as I have noted in my comments.

Hope this helps.

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Deuteronomy 12:15-16 refers to the killing of animals for personal consumption any time, any where, not for sacrifice. This is allowed. E.g., They could kill animals that were unacceptable for sacrifice, like a defective lamb.

Leviticus 1:3 “ ‘If the offering is a burnt offering from the herd, you are to offer a male without defect. You must present it at the entrance to the tent of meeting so that it will be acceptable to the Lord.

Leviticus 17:3-4 refers to the killing of animals for sacrificial purposes outside the tabernacle. This is not allowed.

Leviticus 17:3 New International Version

Any Israelite who sacrifices an ox, a lamb or a goat in the camp or outside of it

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 3. - What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat. The use of the word killeth, instead of sacrificeth, is one of the chief causes of the error

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    "Leviticus 17:3-4 refers to the killing of animals for sacrificial purposes outside the tabernacle. This is not allowed." This is actually not so simple. Deut. 12:20-22 makes it abundantly clear that only after they settle the land they can eat "wherever they want", in the desert they weren't able to eat meat unless they sacrificed parts of it first. See Rashi. – Bach Feb 8 at 20:40

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