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In Exodus 24:4 (NASB)

And Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. (...)

What are "the words of the Lord"?

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In the giving of the Israelite covenant in Ex 19-23, we have a number of time where God speaks to Moses directly:

  • Ex 19:3, 9, 10, etc.

However, the more significant sentence is described as follows:

  • Ex 20:1 - "And God spoke all these words:" See Ex 20:1-17 (ie 10 Commandments)
  • Ex Ex 20:22 - "Then the LORD spoke to Moses, 'tell the Israelites this'" See Ex 20:23 - 23:33 (Expansion and cultic application of the 10 Commandments)

We are then told (Ex 24:4), And Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. The people answered, three times, “whatever the Lord has said we will do”, Ex 19:8, 24:3, 7, thus creating the Israelite covenant.

This is clearly what we now have recorded as the covenant and called "the Book of the Covenant" in Ex 24:7. The 10 Commandments are also called “the covenant” (Ex 34:27, 28, Deut 9:9, 11, 15) and placed inside the ark (Ex 25:16, 21, 40:20, Heb 9:4).

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https://biblehub.com/commentaries/exodus/24-4.htm

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord,.... Jarchi says, all from the creation, to the giving of the law, and the commands at Marah; but though these were written by him, yet not at this time; but as Aben Ezra more truly observes, what are mentioned in this "parashah", or section, or what is contained in the two preceding chapters, he not only related to them from his memory, but he wrote them in a book, which is after mentioned, that they might be seen and read hereafter; for these were not the ten commands, they were written as well as spoken by the Lord himself, but the judicial laws before mentioned

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