In Genesis 40:2

Pharaoh was furious with his two officials, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker.

Who was the Pharaoh?

Note: similar question was asked about the Pharaoh of Ezekiel's time and an answer was provided - Apries.

  • 2
    There is a huge literature on this and MUCH disagreement. This site will not solve the historical question. There is much better historical data about Ezekiel's time and almost do debate there.
    – Dottard
    Jan 15 '21 at 8:28
  • 1
    A culture which deliberately re-writes its history in order to 'adjust' the past (as ancient Egypt was and as many are today) is hard to substantiate, especially with a dynasty which pretends to be 'gods' (making it a highly competitive and fragile state of government prone to much alteration of the record of past events). All the more so after the loss of a Pharaoh 'deity' (plus entire army) in the Red Sea after the 'uprising' of a nomadic group of migrants. It comes as no surprise that the history of that particular era is somewhat . . . um . . . obscure.
    – Nigel J
    Jan 15 '21 at 11:45

Who was Pharaoh in Joseph's time?

No one knows for sure. Biblewise mentions the following interesting facts:

Joseph might have come to Egypt during the reign of Sesostris II (1894-1878 BCE).

He most likely begins his career under Sesostris III (1878-1841 BCE). He lives in Egypt for 71 years, so Joseph dies in approximately 1805 BCE, under the reign of Amenemhet III (1841-1797 BCE).

Genesis 37 states that Joseph’s brothers sell him for 20 shekels of silver. That is the average price for a slave during the Middle Kingdom. Before that time, it is roughly 10-15 and later it became 30-40 shekels.

Joseph works as a slave, a practice that becomes widespread during the Middle Kingdom period. Many slaves are owned by private individuals, such as Potifar.

Genesis 41:14 states that before Joseph meets with Pharaoh, he puts on clean clothes and shaves. The Egyptians abhor facial hair and are a clean people.

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