In Job, God authorizes Satan to do everything except take Job's life. This was not a general authorization to do whatever he wants to whomever he wants whenever he wants, but relates specifically to the testing of Job. There are other similar authorizations that are limited for specific purposes and events:
- Rev 7.2-3: 'And I saw another angel ascending ⌊from the east⌋, holding the seal of the living God, and he cried out with a loud voice to the four angels ⌊who were given permission⌋ to damage the earth and the sea, saying, “Do not damage the earth or the sea or the trees until we have sealed the slaves of our God on their foreheads.”'
- Rev 9.3-5: 'And out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the scorpions of the earth have power. And it was told to them that they should not damage the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, except those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads. And it was granted to them that they should not kill them, but that they would be tormented five months, and their torment is like the torment of a scorpion when it stings a person.'
- Rev 13.7 'And it was given to him to make war with the saints and to conquer them. And authority was given to him over every tribe and people and language and nation.'
Saints are also given authorizations:
- Luke 10.17-20 'And the seventy-two returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name!” So he said to them, “I saw Satan falling like lightning from heaven. Behold, I have given you the authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing will ever harm you. Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are inscribed in heaven.”'
There is no general documentation of a blanket authorization to control the weather, and indeed we see Elijah commanding the weather, and God promising to command the weather, but there may be limited authorization for a specific purpose (e.g. testing Job).