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Hi in the following verse:

Mark 1:15 (UBS5): Πεπλήρωται ὁ καιρὸς καὶ ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ· μετανοεῖτε καὶ πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ.

... has been fulfilled the time and has drawn near the kingdom of God

[Literal interlinear from EGNT]

What is the purpose of the author in using the perfect passive for Πεπλήρωται and perfect active for ἤγγικεν? For instance, the perfect passive could have been used for both or the perfect active.

Thanks in advance!

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  • 2
    The two verbs have different subjects. – Dottard Jan 6 at 10:57
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    I have edited only to make it clear to all users what is being asked. (Up-voted +1.) – Nigel J Jan 6 at 16:07
  • Thanks Nigel J appreciated. – user7289 Jan 6 at 18:02
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English Standard Version

and saying, “The time is fulfilled

is fulfilled,
Πεπλήρωται (Peplērōtai)
Verb - Perfect Indicative Middle or Passive - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 4137: From pleres; to make replete, i.e. to cram, level up, or to furnish, satisfy, execute, finish, verify, etc.

Time is not the actor; God is.

New Living Translation

“The time promised by God has come at last!”

New Living Translation

“The Kingdom of God is near!

is near
ἤγγικεν (ēngiken)
Verb - Perfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular Strong's Greek 1448: Trans: I bring near; intrans: I come near, approach. From eggus; to make near, i.e. approach.

Kingdom of God is the actor. It has come near. It makes no sense to make it passive: the Kingdom of God has been come near.

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  • Thanks Tony very helpful and clear and inline with how I understood subject/object in respect to passive/active. Ι guess I was curious as to why the author (or Jesus) chose not to word this differently where the actor (subject) is God an the the verb relating to fulfilment is active and wondered if there was anything more behind it e.g. KoG - it could also be “the kingdom of God has been brought near” (i.e. God is the actor and the coming near is passive). – user7289 Jan 6 at 18:01
  • Glad I could help. Partly, it is due to the idiomatic usage of the Greek word for fulfilled which is almost always used as passive. These are more pragmatic issues than syntax. Ultimately, it was just Mark's writing style. – Tony Chan Jan 6 at 18:08
  • Okay great thats the exact thing I wanted to understand - so its idiomatic/writing style. – user7289 Jan 6 at 18:18
  • God bless your reading :) – Tony Chan Jan 6 at 18:20

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