The general translation of וַיִּקְרָ֨א שְׁמֹ֜ו פֶּ֠לֶא is his name will be called wonderful etc, but the form of the verb is simple pal not nifal... Who is the subject and who is the recipient of this action of naming?
In Isaiah 9:6 [LXX] / Yeshayahu (יְשַׁעְיָ֣הוּ) [MT] 9:5, The last action we read is “Yiqra” ( יִקְרָא ) = [He] will call ; Future | 3rd person (masculine) - singular.
- If the verse was about a singular female will call, we would read : “Tiqra” ( תִּקְרָא ).
- If the verse was about multiple men will call, we would read : “Yiqre’u” ( יִקְרְאוּ ).
- If the verse was about multiple women calling, we would read : “Tiqre’na” ( תִּקְרֶאנָה ).
The action “Yiqra” (יִקְרָא) will be performed by a specific masculine figure - referenced with 3 titles already established in the Tanakh.
"For a child [is] born to us, a son given to us, and the authority is upon his shoulder - and * the wondrous adviser, * the mighty God, * the everlasting Father will call his-name : "the prince of peace." ( כִּי־יֶ֣לֶד יֻלַּד־לָ֗נוּ בֵּן נִתַּן־לָ֔נוּ וַתְּהִ֥י הַמִּשְׂרָ֖ה עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ וַיִּקְרָ֨א שְׁמ֜וֹ פֶּ֠לֶא יוֹעֵץ֙ אֵ֣ל גִּבּ֔וֹר אֲבִי־עַ֖ד שַׂר־שָׁלֽוֹם )
Wondrous Adviser (פֶּ֠לֶא יוֹעֵץ֙) also refers to YHVH (יְהוָה) in Psalms / [Tehillim 119:129] "Your decrees are wondrous; rightly do I observe them." (פְּלָא֥וֹת עֵדְוֺתֶ֑יךָ עַל־כֵּ֝֗ן נְצָרָ֥תַם נַפְשִֽׁי)
Mighty God ( אֵ֣ל גִּבּ֔וֹר ) refers to YHVH ( יְהֹוָה ) in Deuteronomy / [Devarim 10:17] “For YHVH, your God, is God of gods and the Lord of the lords, the great mighty and awesome God, Who will show no favor, nor will He take a bribe.” (כִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם ה֚וּא אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַֽאֲדֹנֵ֖י הָֽאֲדֹנִ֑ים הָאֵ֨ל הַגָּדֹ֤ל הַגִּבֹּר֙ וְהַנּוֹרָ֔א אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹֽא־יִשָּׂ֣א פָנִ֔ים וְלֹ֥א יִקַּ֖ח שֹֽׁחַד )
Everlasting Father ( אֲבִי־עַ֖ד ) refers to YHVH ( יְהֹוָה ) in Deuteronomy / [Devarim 33:27] “The eternal God is a refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms” ( מְעֹנָה אֱלֹהֵי קֶדֶם, וּמִתַּחַת זְרֹעֹת עוֹלָם )
- The only name not established is “Sar Shalom” - so readers can deduce [who] that title will belong to.
What is [delivered] to us - Israel?
"Ki **Yeled** [Yulad] La-Nu" ( כִּי־יֶ֣לֶד יֻלַּד־לָ֗נוּ )
- [a] child (Yeled, יֶ֣לֶד)
What type of child is [given] to us?
"**Ben** [Nitan] La-Nu" (בֵּן נִתַּן־לָ֔נוּ)
- [a] son (Ben, בֵּן)
The title that has not been established in the Tanakh is the name of [a] child (yeled, יֶ֣לֶד) / [a] son (ben, בֵּן) given to Israel which will be called : Prince [of] Peace / "Sar Shalom" (שַׂר שָׁלֽוֹם).
Who is the Wondrous Adviser (פֶּ֠לֶא יוֹעֵץ֙) / Mighty God (אֵ֣ל גִּבּ֔וֹר) to give a yeled his-name (שְׁמ֜וֹ) ?
- The Everlasting Father ( אֲבִי־עַ֖ד ) - YHVH ( יְהֹוָ֥ה ) - shall accomplish this.
- Read [Yeshayahu 9:6] "In token of abundant authority and-of-peace without limit Upon David’s throne and kingdom, That it may be firmly established In justice and in equity Now and evermore. The zeal of YHVH [of] Hosts Shall bring this to pass." (לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּ֨ה] הַמִּשְׂרָ֜ה וּלְשָׁל֣וֹם אֵֽין־קֵ֗ץ עַל־כִּסֵּ֤א דָוִד֙ וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּ֔וֹ לְהָכִ֤ין אֹתָהּ֙ וּֽלְסַעֲדָ֔הּ בְּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּבִצְדָקָ֑ה מֵעַתָּה֙ וְעַד־עוֹלָ֔ם קִנְאַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת)
The LXX for Isa 9:6 is significant for its differences as much as its similarities to the Hebrew. The usual English translation of the Hebrew reads:
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government will be upon His shoulders. And He will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
These regal-kingly Messianic names are used in the NT of Messiah in various ways:
1. Wonderful Counselor - see 1 Tim 2:5, "For there is one God, and there is one mediator [= parakletos = counselor] between God and men, the man Christ Jesus"
2. Mighty God - see Gen 1:23, "He [Jesus] shall be called Emanuel, God with us". See also John 20:28, etc. See especially comments below by Ellicott about the form of "God" used in the Hebrew which always signifies the supreme deity.
3. Everlasting Father - the ancients thought of their king as provider, protector, peace keeper and father of the nation - it is this last sense that the future Messiah is conceived here. In the NT, again, Jesus repeatedly declares His unity with the Father, John 10:30, 14:10, etc.
4. Prince of Peace - Jesus bequeathed His peace to the disciples as one of His final gifts before the crucifixion. John 14:27.
Finally, all these comments are made in the context that "the government shall be upon his shoulders" anticipates those of the angel before Jesus' birth in Luke 1:32, 33 -
He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever. His kingdom will never end!”
Ellicott provides some excellent insights into these four titles:
we have four elements of the compound name: (1) Wonderful-Counsellor, (2) God-the-Mighty-One, (3) Father of Eternity, (4) Prince of Peace. Each element of the Name has its special significance.
(1) The first embodies the thought of the wisdom of the future Messiah. Men should not simply praise it as they praise their fellows, but should adore and wonder at it as they wonder at the wisdom of God (Judges 13:18, where the Hebrew for the “secret” of the Authorised version is the same as that for “wonderful;” Exodus 15:11; Psalm 77:11; Psalm 78:11; Isaiah 28:29; Isaiah 29:14). The name contains the germ afterwards developed in the picture of the wisdom of the true king in Isaiah 11:2-4. The LXX. renders the Hebrew as “the angel of great counsel,” and in the Vatican text the description ends there.
(2) It is significant that the word for “God” is not Elohim, which may be used in a lower sense for those who are representatives of God, as in Exodus 7:1; Exodus 22:28, 1Samuel 28:13, but El, which is never used by Isaiah, or any other Old Testament writer, in any lower sense than that of absolute Deity, and which, we may note, had been specially brought before the prophet’s thoughts in the name Immanuel. The name appears again as applied directly to Jehovah in Isaiah 10:21; Deuteronomy 10:17; Jeremiah 32:18; Nehemiah 9:32; Psalm 24:8; and the adjective in Isaiah 42:13.
(3) In “Father of Eternity,” (LXX. Alex. and Vulg., “Father of the age to come “) we have a name which seems at first to clash with the formalised developments of Christian theology, which teach us, lest we should “confound the persons,” not to deal with the names of the Father and the Son as interchangeable. Those developments, however, were obviously not within Isaiah’s ken, and he uses the name of “Father” because none other expressed so well the true idea of loving and protecting government (Job 29:16, Isaiah 22:21). And if the kingdom was to be “for ever and ever,” then in some very real sense he would be, in that attribute of Fatherly government, a sharer in the eternity of Jehovah. Another rendering of the name, adopted by some critics, “Father (i.e., Giver) of booty,” has little to recommend it, and is entirely out of harmony with the majesty of the context.
(4) “Prince of Peace.” The prophet clings, as all prophets before him had done, to the thought that peace, and not war, belonged to the ideal Kingdom of the Messiah. That hope had been embodied by David in the name of Absalom (“ father of peace “) and Solomon. It had been uttered in the prayer of Psalm 72:3, and by Isaiah’s contemporary, Micah (Micah 5:5). Earth-powers, like Assyria and Egypt, might rest in war and conquest as an end, but the true king, though warfare might be needed to subdue his foes (Psalm 45:5), was to be a “Prince of Peace” (Zechariah 9:9-10). It must be noted as remarkable, looking to the grandeur of the prophecy, and its apparently direct testimony to the true nature of the Christ, that it is nowhere cited in the New Testament as fulfilled in Him; and this, though Isaiah 9:1 is, as we have seen, quoted by St. Matthew and Isaiah 9:7, finds at least an allusive reference in Luke 1:32-33.
APPENDIX - LXX of Isa 9:6
The Greek LXX reads
ὅτι παιδίον ἐγενήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη ἡμῖν, οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελός, θαυμαστὸς σύμβουλος, Θεὸς ἰσχυρός, ἐξουσιαστής, ἄρχων εἰρήνης, πατὴρ τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος· ἐγὼ γὰρ ἄξω εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας, εἰρήνην καὶ ὑγίειαν αὐτῷ.
This may be translated (Brenton)
For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose government is upon his shoulder, and his name is called the (1) messenger of great counsel, (2) wonderful counsellor, (3) mighty God, potentate, (4) prince of peace, (5) father of the age to come: for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to him.
Thus, there are five titles given in the LXX.
I BELIEVE that from the local context of Isaiah 9:1-7 (see also Matt. 4:12-17), these names belong to a Child, a Son, GIVEN unto us and it’s the ZEAL of the LORD (YHWH) of hosts that performed this as the fulfillment of this prophecy has been uttered by apostle Paul in Ephesians 1:17-21 saying:
v17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you the spirit of WISDOM and REVELATION in the KNOWLEDGE of Him,
v18. the EYES of your UNDERSTANDING being ENLIGHTENED; that you MAY KNOW what is the hope of His CALLING, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,
v19. and what is the EXCEEDING GREATNESS of His POWER TOWARD US who BELIEVE, according to the WORKING of His MIGHTY POWER
v20. which He WORKED IN Christ when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,
v21. far ABOVE all PRINCIPALITY and POWER and MIGHT and DOMINION and EVERY NAME that is NAMED, not only in this age but also in that which is to come, ...