None of the Ten Commandments were for Jews only. All ten of them are for all people. Of course, God gives us freedom of choice, and we are at liberty to choose our own course; yet, in terms of God's requirements, the Ten Commandments apply to all of mankind.
And the fourth commandment applies to keeping the weekly Sabbath, the seventh day of the week.
The sabbaths could also be years.
But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a
sabbath for the LORD: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy
vineyard. (Leviticus 25:4, KJV)
And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times
seven years; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be
unto thee forty and nine years. (Leviticus 25:8, KJV)
And the sabbaths could also be particular rest days that were not tied to the weekly sabbath.
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in
the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of
blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation. (Leviticus 23:24, KJV)
It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your
souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even,
shall ye celebrate your sabbath. (Leviticus 23:32, KJV)
Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered
in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven
days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall
be a sabbath. (Leviticus 23:39, KJV)
These special feast days (ceremonial sabbaths) and seventh years (sabbaths for the land) were not part of the ten commandments. These festivals and ceremonies pointed forward to Christ and his atonement. They were types, leading to the great Antitype. These are those which are no longer applicable--to anyone, Jews included (if only they would accept Jesus as the Messiah).
Paul addresses the ceremonial sabbaths in Colossians 2:16.
Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of
an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: (Colossians
This is clear because Paul kept the weekly Sabbath himself, entering the synagogue on Sabbath; and Paul would not tell anyone they should be free from the obligations of the Ten Commandments. Jesus said himself that he had not come to change the law.
Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven
and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the
law, till all be fulfilled. (Matthew 5:17-18, KJV)
In order, then, for any part to "pass from the law," it must first "be fulfilled." Only the ceremonial laws which pointed to Christ's sacrificial atonement could be "fulfilled" at the cross; therefore, only these laws could "pass from the law." None of the Ten Commandments, including the fourth, are of this category. They were written in stone, indicating their permanence.