Time of Jesus' crucifixion in relation to the Passover
Jesus' crucifixion happened in 33 AD, on April 3rd (Nissan 14), a Friday, at 3:00 pm (the 9th hour), the day before Passover, but not just any Passover, as it was actually a Great Passover.
NB - Great Passovers were always on a Saturday and never on any other day of the week. [Mark 14:12, relates to a week day Passover, the LAST SUPPER in actual fact].
According to some (but apparently not all) historical records, the Vernal Equinox, of 33 AD was on March the 20th (18;47 GMT, or 21:47 local time), with the New Moon actual sighting (Nissan 1) being right on time for the appropriate Full Moon of Saturday, April the 4th. And, if that wasn't all, the Full Moon not only became a Blood Moon but was preceded by a Total Solar Eclipse (some 2 weeks previously--though the eclipse wasn't total in Jerusalem) and accompanied by an Earthquake. All in all, an unmistakable marking of prophetic time.
I can hear the "naysayers" already: But, by most all accounts, Jesus' ministry commenced in 27 AD, in the 15th year of Tiberius, so how could he have died in 33 AD ??
Tiberius Caesar, was inaugurated in 14 AD, regardless of the apparent fact that he was co-regent with his ailing father for two years prior...
Year 1 09/18/14 to 09/17/15
Year 15 09/18/28 to 09/17/29
When Luke talks about the 15th year of Tiberius, he is talking, 28 AD/29 AD. John the Baptist, started preaching in the Spring of 29 AD, in the same year of Jesus' baptism (the actual time of the commencement of Jesus' ministry), with Jesus being baptized in the Fall of 29 AD, and then crucified (3 and a 1/2 years later), in the Spring of 33 AD.
[A certain chronologist by the name of Rainer Riener suggested that 12 AD should be considered as the start of Tiberius' rule. His suggestion, however, is considered less likely, as all the major Roman historians who calculated the years of Tiberius' rule - namely Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio - counted from 14 AD, the year of Augustus' death. In addition, coin evidence shows that Tiberius started to reign in 14 AD]
Passover from Ex.12 culminating in John 19:14 - 37
Ex. 12:6, NASB, Passover lamb to be killed at *twilight (after sunset but before darkness), on Nissan 14...
*Note from Ryrie Study Bible...twilight, considered between sunset and nightfall (about 6 - 7pm), or between the sun's decline and sunset (about 3 - 5pm).
... to be eaten (after roasting) that same night and with "Unleavened Bread" and bitter herbs....it is the LORD'S PASSOVER - Ex. 12:11 [First day from twilight on Nissan 14 to twilight on Nissan 15, first day to be a holy assembly, as must be the seventh day of "Unleavened Bread", i.e. Nissan 15 thru Nissan 21]
Matt, 26:2, Jesus to his disciples... "You know that after two days (said on the Wednesday) the Passover is coming, and the "Son of Man" is to be delivered up for CRUCIFIXION" [two days from Wednesday would be Nissan 14, Friday, the evening of which would commence Nissan 15]
Matt, 26:17 (similarly in Mark and Luke) - Now on the first day of "Unleavened Bread" the disciples came to Jesus, saying, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?" [on the eve of Nissan 13 (Thursday), but start of Nissan 14, the following daylight hours to be the Friday].
So here we are in the "twilight" of Thursday evening (start of Nissan 14) witnessing the LAST SUPPER, which would suggest that the "UB" started on Thursday evening, albeit start of Nissan 14 and therefore not Nissan 15. Some 21 - 24 hours later (6 - 7pm, or 3 - 5pm), Jesus is dead.
John 19:14 - Here Jesus is before Pilate, during the daylight hours of Friday, Nissan 14 (after the previous evening's LAST SUPPER), "Preparation Day", for the following day's Sabbath, Nissan 15, which of course would begin that Friday evening.
So we have a Passover meal on Thursday eve, instigated by Jesus himself and then the "traditional" Passover meal on Friday eve, and Jesus is crucified in between the two.
In the HCSB(LESB), on Page 92, we have Dr. Gene A Getz', Principle to live by #12 - Christ the Passover Lamb, and quote:
When God instructed the children of Israel to sacrifice a perfect lamb and mark their doors with blood (Ex. 12:22), he introduced the world to an event that vividly portrays Christ's death on the cross.
Centuries later, when John the Baptist saw Jesus, he said, "Here is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (Jn. 1:29). Later, Paul identified Jesus Christ as "our Passover" who "has been sacrificed" (1 Co. 5:7). Peter also captured the connection between the tenth plague and the death of Christ:
For you know that you were redeemed from your empty way of life inherited from your fathers, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish. (1 Pt. 1:18-19)
The Lord Jesus Christ became our Passover lamb. When we sincerely accept him as our personal Savior, "the blood of Jesus...cleanses us from all sin" (1 Jn. 1:7)... end quote.