In Esther 1:15, King Ahasuerus asks his advisors what should be done to the disobedient Queen Vashti “according to the law.” What law is he referring to?

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The "Law" throughout the book of Esther is the "Law of the Medes and Persians" -

  • Est 1:19 - "Therefore, if it pleases the king, let him issue a royal decree and let it be written in the laws of Persia and Media, which cannot be repealed, that Vashti is never again to enter the presence of King Xerxes.

This same law is referenced in other places as well:

  • Dan 6:8 - Therefore, O king, establish the decree and sign the document so that it cannot be changed—in accordance with the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed.”
  • Dan 6:12 - ... The king answered and said, “The thing stands fast, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be revoked.”
  • Dan 6:15 - Then the men approached the king together and said to him, “Remember, O king, that by the law of the Medes and Persians no decree or ordinance established by the king can be changed.”

because of the inherent inviolability of the Law of the Medes and Persians, such laws were often appealed to in order not to contravene them. This was precisely the approach of the king in Ester 1:15. Then if the law said something, the king would be seen as abiding by the law.

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