The phrase "Most High God" always refers exclusively to YHWH, the God of both the NT and the OT. Note the following:
- Mark 5:7 - He shouted at the top of his voice, "What do you want with me, Jesus,
Son of the Most High God? In God's name don't torture me ...
- Luke 6:35 - Then you will have a great reward. You will be the children of the Most High
God. After all, he is kind to unthankful and evil people ...
- Luke 8:28 - When he saw Jesus, he cried out and fell at his feet, shouting at the top of his voice, "What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God?
- Acts 16:17 - She followed Paul and the rest of us, shouting, "These men are servants of
the Most High God, who are telling you the way to be saved ...
- Heb 7:1 - For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham
returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him ...
The Old Testament has exactly the same pattern:
- Gen 14:18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. (Now he was the priest of the Most High God.) ...
- Gen 14:19 and he blessed Abram, saying, "Blessed be Abram by by the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth.
- Gen 14:20 And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand." Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of everything.
- Genesis 14:22 But Abram said to the king of Sodom, "With raised my hand to the LORD,
the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth
See also Job 31:28, Ps 57:2, 78:35, 56, 83:18, Lam 3:35, 38, Eze 1:24, Dan 3:26, 4:2, 5:18, 21, 7:18, 25, etc.
Note in this brief survey that "God Most High" or "Most High God" is called:
- Creator of heaven and earth
- YHWH (see also Ps 83:18)
- The "Rock" (Ps 78:35)
A consistent hermeneutic demands that "Most High God" is YHWH, creator of heaven and earth, in both the OT and the NT.; AND Father of the Son of the Most High God. That is, God the Father is the Most High God.
El ‘elyon means “the supreme God,” and though the two words are so
similar in English, they are altogether unlike in Hebrew. In Psalm
7:17 the epithet ‘elyon is applied to Jehovah. With that precision in
the use of the names of Deity which we have so often noticed before,
Melchizedek is described as a priest of El ‘elyon, the Supreme Ruler
of the universe; but Abram swears by Jehovah El ‘elyon, thus claiming
that Jehovah was that Supreme Deity whom Melchizedek served, though
without the special knowledge of Him which the patriarch possessed.
... And the Cambridge commentary also has:
Some have thought that El Elyon denotes here the name of an ancient
Canaanite deity, and quote, in favour of this view, the statement of
Philo of Byblus (Euseb. Prep. Ev. i. 10) that there was a Phoenician
divinity Ἐλιοῦν καλούμενος Ὕψιστος = “Elyon called Most High.” But El
in the O.T. is one of the most common names of God, especially
frequent in poetical and archaic usage. It is often combined with some
qualifying epithet denoting an attribute, e.g. Genesis 17:1, “God
Almighty” = El Shaddai: Genesis 21:33, “the Everlasting God” = El
‘olâm: Exodus 20:5, “a jealous God” = El ḳanna. Again Elyon, “Most
High,” is an epithet often applied to Jehovah, e.g. Numbers 24:16; and
combined with El, Psalm 78:35. Melchizedek seems, therefore, to be
regarded by the writer as a priest of God Almighty, the God of the
Universe. The fuller knowledge of God as Jehovah, the God of
Revelation, was the privilege of Abram and his descendants. The
conception of Melchizedek as the representative of a primitive phase
of Natural Religion, in the Canaan of 2000 b.c., idealizes his figure.
The Pulpit commentary reaches the same conclusion:
Of the most high God. Literally, El-Ellen, a proper name for the
Supreme Deity (occurring only here, in the narrative of Abram's
interview with the kings); of which the first term, El, from the same
root as Elohim (Genesis 1:1, q.v.), signifies the Strong One, and is
seldom applied to God without some qualifying attribute or cognomen,
as El-Shaddai, or El, the God of Israel; and the second, 'Elion
(occurring frequently afterwards, as in Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy
32:8; Psalm 7:18 [Psalm 7:17]; Psalms 9:2), describes God as the High,
the Highest, the Exalted, the Supreme, and is sometimes used in
conjunction with Jehovah (Psalm. 7:18 [Psalm 7:17]), and with Elohim
(Psalm 57:3 [Psalm 57:2]), while sometimes it stands alone (Psalm 21:8
[Psalm 21:7]). Most probably the designation here describes the name
under which the Supreme Deity was worshipped by Melchisedeck and the
king of Sodom, whom Abram recognizes as followers of the true God by
identifying, as in Ver. 22, El-Elion with Jehovah (cf. Quarry, p.