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Jeremiah 25:15 This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, said to me: “Take from My hand this cup of the wine of wrath, and make all the nations to whom I send you drink from it. 16And they will drink and stagger and go out of their minds, because of the sword that I will send among them.”
17So I took the cup from the LORD’s hand and made all the nations drink from it, each one to whom the LORD had sent me

Was there a physical cup present when Jeremiah spoke these words? Was this just a vision in the mind of Jeremiah?

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There are several things that make the "cup of fury" metaphoric in Jer 25:15-17 such as:

  • Nations staggering
  • One prophet giving the cup almost immediately to many nations
  • Many nations all drinking from a single cup

As the Pulpit commentary observes:

The wine, up of this fury; or, this wine-cup of fury. The wine with which the cup is filled is the wrath of God. The figure is not an infrequent one with the prophets and the psalmists (comp. Jeremiah 49:12; Jeremiah 51:7; Isaiah 51:17, 22; Ezekiel 23:31-34; Habakkuk 1:16; Psalm 60:3; Psalm 75:8).

Precisely the same Hebrew metaphor is also used in the NT in places like Matt 26:39, 42, Mark 10:39, 14:39, Luke 22:42, John 18:11, 1 Cor 10:21, etc.

The "cup of fury" metaphor is also quoted directly in the highly symbolic prophetic passages of Rev 14:10, 16:19, 17:4, 18:6.

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God often commands his prophets to do something physical to symbolize the prophecies. Jeremiah had done also only 2 chapters later.

Jeremiah 27:1 Early in the reign of Zedekiah a son of Josiah king of Judah, this word came to Jeremiah from the Lord: 2This is what the Lord said to me: “Make a yoke out of straps and crossbars and put it on your neck.

Back to your question, Was there a physical cup present when Jeremiah spoke these words?

I believe so. It symbolizes the cup of wrath.

Was this just a vision in the mind of Jeremiah?

I believe it was both a vision and physical. The hand of the Lord was invisible in any case.

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