The context of, 'Moses regarding disgrace FOR Christ' or, 'considering the reproach of Christ greater' is a matter of faith as the whole chapter points out.
He knew well the promise of the Messiah to come, the one who would save - not just the nation of Israel as he was being led to do, but the entire creation.
The LORD your God will raise up to you a Prophet from the middle of you, of your brothers, like to me; to him you shall listen Deut 18:15
And I suspect that the unfortunate incident of 'striking the rock' instead of talking to it (as instructed) to release 'living water', Moses gathered what the typology represented. Of course, the typology was thick on the ground and he would be tripping over it constantly during his life!
Then Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod; and water came forth abundantly Num 20:11
He knew well the strife they were in was because God had some lessons to teach His people and while it was difficult, extremely wearying and stressful, he happily endured this for the sake of the bigger picture - of which he was a small player.
Also glad to do this, (as viewed from an Egyptian perspective, a disgrace to now live as he was) than rest and relax in Egypt as a prince wanting for nothing. Better to work for God and suffer in it, than work for man and live on pleasure with no hope for a future.
v39 And all these (men and women of faith), having gained approval through their faith, did not receive what was promised, 40because God had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they would not be made perfect.
Time of ~1500 years has nothing to do with anything. Moses knew God's faithfulness and righteousness and trusted that whatever God said He would do would be done. All these mentioned in Heb 11 lived on a promise from God - for themselves, their nation and their future. Glimpsing only in part what glory lay ahead for the faithful servant. In Moses' case, the riches would be far greater than Egypt's and he reckoned it was worth the temporary suffering/disgrace !