Was the flood caused by rain or the waters above and below the earth? In particular I'm looking at (Gen 7:4, 7:12 vs Gen 7:11, 8:2).
"Springs of the Deep" and "FloodGates" seems kind of vague. I have no real concept of what's going on.
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My understanding comes partly from having read the book 'The Genesis Flood' by Morris and Whitcomb in about the year 1968 when I was seventeen years old and I still am influenced by it. See the Wikipedia article about this book and its influence.
The earth was a rich place prior to the Flood. The climate would have been temperate and humid, possibly tropical. 'A mist went up and watered the ground', Genesis 2:6.
During the Flood, copious water fell from heaven. Now, there is comment in Genesis about waters 'above' the heavens. I take that to be spiritual and to relate to beings.
I understand, as suggested by Morris and Whitcomb that a water canopy existed (water vapour, not cloud) around the earth as protection. This would have protected the earth from bombardment with cosmic radiation (gamma rays).
Without that protection we see the rapid decline in longevity upon earth, within a few generations.
Morris and Whitcomb suggest this. I also suggest it. I do not assert it.
Thus the waters from heaven.
Also, the 'fountains of the deep' were broken up. And we can see this in that both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans bear vast 'scars' or 'trenches' down the length of them as though the sea floor had erupted. As we are told.
Presumably, there was a layer of water beneath the earth's crust forming a 'cushion'. Without this cushion, we now see the effects of tectonic movement and we have earthquakes. Particularly the 'ring of fire' around the Pacific Ocean.
As I say, this is all suggested. I believe it all to be reasonable. And I believe it does not conflict with what we read in scripture.
“Was the flood caused by rain or the waters above and below the earth?”
That’s precisely what is being said
OT cosmology does not mirror modern secular cosmology. It was the heavens (three) separated by a firmament between the first and second heaven which also held up the waters above as per day two of creation
“And God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the firmament and separated the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were above the firmament. And it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.” Genesis 1:6-8
As such when the windows of heaven (the firmament) were opened
“In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened.” Genesis 7:11
This is speaking of the firmament’s windows being opened and allowing waters from above the firmament to flood the plane of the earth below covering all the land even the top of the heights mountain.
The great deep also contains waters and these waters are below the plane of the earth or the plane of the earth is standing in water
“For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water,” II Peter 3:5