Reference to 1 Kings 5:12. Since nations had no relations of blood, by virtue of a treaty, they had a relationship of brotherhood. Hence, Tyre and Israel were brothers. Reference to Amos 1:6, Tyre exiled a whole nation of Israel to Edom, this means this was one of the terms they weren't supposed to break. Are there others?

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    – Dottard
    Oct 16, 2020 at 8:49

1 Answer 1


The "treaty" בְּרִית (berith) = "Covenant", or agreement of 1 Kings 12:5 between King Solomon and King Hiram is actually spelled out (not necessarily fully) in 1 Kings 12. The preamble and purpose of the Covenant/Treaty is in 1 Kings 12:3-5

What King Hiram of Tyre agreed to do:

  • Cut cedar logs, V6
  • Haul the logs to the sea, V9
  • Float them on rafts down to an Israelite port, V9
  • Sort and separate the logs ready for transport to Jerusalem and other places, V9
  • Allow Solomon's men to work alongside Hiram's men, V6

What King Solomon agreed to do:

  • Pay the wages of all the Sidoniam workers, V6
  • Supply food for the Hiram's household, V9
  • Pay 20,000 cors of wheat, V10
  • Pay 20,000 cors of pure olive oil, V10
  • Supply about 10,000 mean to help with all this effort, V14

According to 1 Kings 9:28, there was also an agreement to sail trading ships with Tyre/Sidon as well. See also 2 Chron 8:17, 18, 9:21.

There is a parallel passage in 2 Chron 2 which gives a more complete picture of the treaty between Solomon and Hiram. After a preamble and statement of purpose in V3-6, we have -

What King Hiram of Tyre agreed to do:

  • Supply skilled craftsmen to work on the temple in Jerusalem, V7
  • Supply cedar, cypress, algum logs
  • Allow Israelite men to work with Sidonian workers

What King Solomon agreed to do:

  • Pay 20,000 cors of ground wheat, V10
  • Pay 20,000 cors of barley, V10
  • Pay 20,000 cars of wine, V10
  • Pay 29,000 cors of pure olive oil, V10
  • Supply workers to help with the huge task to work with the Sidonians, V17, 18

As to the record in Amos 1 -

  • V6 concerned Gaza which was 207 km south of Tyre
  • However, V9 concerns the prophecy of rebuke and doom for Tyre because it did not remember its treaty with Jerusalem. On this Ellicott suggests:

(9) The brotherly covenant.—The “covenant of brethren” (margin) was the league made between Hiram and David, and afterwards between Hiram and Solomon (2Samuel 5:11; 1Kings 5:1; 1Kings 5:12). This ancient covenant was forgotten in Phœnicia’s mercantile cupidity, and Tyre was tempted to sell Hebrew captives to Greeks and Idumeans. (Comp. Isaiah 23; Ezekiel 26)

Barnes has a similar comment -

"This brotherly covenant Tyre remembered not," when they delivered up to Edom "a complete captivity," all the Jews who came into their hands. It seems then, that that covenant had an special provision against selling them away from their own land. This same provision other people made for love of their country or their homes; the Jews, for love of their religion. This covenant Tyre remembered not, but brake. They knew doubtless why Edom sought to possess the Israelites; but the covetousness of Tyre fed the cruelty of Edom, and God punished the broken appeal to Himself.

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