Can a soul exist without its spirit?
In short to your question, the answer is NO. Why?
So what do the terms "soul" and spirit really mean?
THE SOUL WHAT IS IT?
The belief that something immaterial, intangible or immortal that leaves the body on death is a Platonic philosophical speculation or theological bias, and it is nowhere to be found in scriptures.
The Bible helps us understand what a soul is. It is used 1/ For people, 2/ animals. 3/ the life a person or an animal has. For this question, only in the sense, 1/for people will be considered.
Genesis 2:7 (NASB)
" Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed
into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being."
Footnotes NASB: Genesis 2:7 Lit "soul"
Genesis 2:7 (KJV)
7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed
into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Notice KJV-a living soul, NASB -a living being
People: In Noah's day "In the ark a few, that is eight souls, were delivered safely through water." Here the word souls clearly stands for people, Noah, his wife, his three sons, and their wives.
1 Peter 3:20 (NET Bible)
20 After they were disobedient long ago when God patiently waited[b]
in the days of Noah as an ark was being constructed. In the ark a few,
that is eight souls, were delivered through water.
Thus the explanation of what a human soul is may be reduced to this simple, unmysterious "soul equation"
human soul = body + breath of life from God.
The spirit what is it ?
Many people believe that "spirit” is just another word for "soul. However, that is not the case. The Bible makes clear that "spirit" and "soul" refer to two different things. How do they differ?
The scriptures help us clarify those words, for example, read how Psalms 104:29 is translated by NASB and the NET Bibles below:
Psalm 104:29 (NASB) "You hide Your face, they are dismayed; You
take away their spirit, they expire And return to their dust."
Psalm 104:29 (NET Bible) " When you ignore them, they panic. When
you take away their life’s breath, they die and return to dust."
Also James 2:26 (NASB) states;
26 For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead.
Clearly then in these verses above the word "spirit" refers to that which gives life to the body.
The soul and the spirit are not the same. The body (the human soul) needs the spirit -- the breath of life that brings our body to life. As the Psalmist said, without the spirit, the body (soul) returns to dust.
Some other verses on the "soul" and notice how various translations render the verses.
THE SOUL WHO SINS WILL DIE.
Ezekiel 18:4 (NASB)
"Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the
soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die."
CAN A SOUL DIE?
Leviticus 24:17-18 (YLT)
17 "And when a man smiteth any soul of man, he is certainly put to
death.18 `And he who smiteth a beast repayeth it, body for body."
Leviticus 24:17-18 (NASB)
17 ‘If a man takes the life of any human being, he shall surely be put to death. 18 The one who [b]takes the life of an animal shall make it good, life for life.
Acts 3:23 (NASB)
23" And it will be that every soul that does not heed that prophet
shall be utterly destroyed from among the people."
Acts 2:23 (ERV)
23 "And anyone who refuses to obey that prophet will die, separated
from God’s people."